791 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Photoelectric Emission Measurements for CVD Grown Polycrystalline Diamond Films

Description: We examined CVD grown polycrystalline diamond films having different methane concentrations to detect defects and study the possible correlation between the methane concentration used during the growth process and the defect density. SEM and Raman results show that the amorphous and sp2 carbon content of the films increases with methane concentration. Furthermore, photoelectric emission from diamond is confirmed to be a two-photon process, hence the electrons are emitted from normally unoccupied states. We found that the photoelectric yield, for our samples, decreases with the increase in methane concentration. This trend can be accounted for in two different ways: either the types of defects observed in this experiment decrease in density as the methane concentration increases; or, the defect density stays the same or increases, but the increase in methane concentration leads to an increase in the electron affinity, which reduces the overall photoelectric yield.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Hassan, Tarek
Partner: UNT Libraries

Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask

Description: We describe the imaging and characterization of native defects on a full field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask, using several reticle and wafer inspection modes. Mask defect images recorded with the SEMA TECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV-wavelength (13.4 nm) actinic microscope, are compared with mask and printed-wafer images collected with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) inspection tools. We observed that defects that appear to be opaque in the SEM can be highly transparent to EUV light, and inversely, defects that are mostly transparent to the SEM can be highly opaque to EUV. The nature and composition of these defects, whether they appear on the top surface, within the multilayer coating, or on the substrate as buried bumps or pits, influences both their significance when printed, and their detectability with the available techniques. Actinic inspection quantitatively predicts the characteristics of printed defect images in ways that may not be possible with non-EUV techniques. As a quantitative example, we investigate the main structural characteristics of a buried pit defect based on EUV through-focus imaging.
Date: March 12, 2010
Creator: Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.; Fontaine, B. La; Tchikoulaeva, A. & Holfeld, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Quantitative Assessment of Site Formation at the Dmanisi Archaeological Site, Republic of Georgia

Description: The focus of this thesis was to gather and analyze micromorphological and petrographic data on soils at the archaeological site of Dmanisi in order to better understand the extent to which the deposition and alteration of the sediments has affected the preservation of artifacts and faunal remains. A major goal of this research was to test hypothesis related to why bone material is discovered in some strata and not in others. This research focuses on the application of micromorphology (supplemented with other methods) to the soils through the use of petrographic analysis of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. These techniques complement previous field analyses by providing a quantitative assessment of individual strata through point counting and chemical mapping. The results of this research support the hypothesis that the sediments are predominantly mafic ashes, while showing that there is very little soil development in the strata. This suggests quick episodic burial in a relatively dry climate, confirming the hypothesis for a short time sequence in the strata. Additionally, differential weathering probably did not play a significant role in the differential abundance of bone remains among the strata at Dmanisi.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Crislip, Peter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analytical Electron Microscopy Characterization of Uranium-Contaminated Soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 Report

Description: A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.
Date: October 1994
Creator: Buck, E. C.; Cunnane, J. C.; Brown, N. R. & Dietz, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ductile grinding of Ba(Sr)TiO{sub 3} detector substrates

Description: Several precision machining techniques have been applied to barium strontium titanate wafers as deterministic replacements for lapping, polishing and reticulation. Surface finishes approaching polish quality have been achieved in less time than normally required, leading to potentially lower manufacturing costs for uncooled FPA`s.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Kahl, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct sublattice imaging of interface dislocation structures in CdTe/GaAs(001)

Description: This paper presents directly interpretable atomic resolution images of dislocation structures at interfaces in CdTe/GaAs(001) systems. This is achieved using the technique of Z-contrast imaging in a 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with maximum entropy image analysis. In addition to being used to further the understanding of the relation between growth conditions and exhibited properties, the data presented provides direct information on the atomic arrangements at dislocation cores.
Date: January 1995
Creator: McGibbon, A.J.; Pennycook, S.J.; Angelo, J.E. & Mills, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

Description: This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Palm, R.G. & De Volpi, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanometer-Scale Compositional Structure in III-V Semiconductor Heterostructures Characterized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Description: Nanometer-scale compositional structure in InAsxP1.InNYAsxPl.x-Y/InP, grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy and in InAsl-xPJkAsl$b#InAs heterostructures heterostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition has been characterized using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. InAsxP1-x alloy layers are found to contain As-rich and P-rich clusters with boundaries formed preferentially within (T 11) and (111) crystal planes. Similar compositional structure is observed within InNYAsxP1-x-Y alloy layers. Imaging of InAsl-xp@Asl#bY superlattices reveals nanometer-scale clustering within both the hAsI-.p and InAsl$bY alloy layers, with preferential alignment of compositional features in the direction. Instances are observed of compositional structure correlated across a heterojunction interface, with regions whose composition corresponds to a smaller unstrained lattice, constant relative to the surrounding alloy material appearing to propagate across the interface.
Date: November 10, 1998
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Bi, W.G.; Biefeld, R.M.; Tu, C.W.; Yu, E.T. & Zuo, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of strain-annealing to evolve the grain boundary character distribution in polycrystalline copper

Description: We have used a two-step (low and high temperature) strain-annealing process to evolve the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) in fully recrystallized oxygen-free electronic (OFE) Cu bar that was forged and rolled. Orientation imaging microscopy has been used to characterize the GBCD after each step in the processing. The fraction of special grain boundaries was {similar_to}70% in the starting recrystallized material. Three different processing conditions were employed: high, moderate, and low temperature. The high-temperature process resulted in a reduction in the fraction of special GBs while both the lower temperature processes resulted in an increase in special fraction up to 85%. Further, the lower temperature processes resulted in average deviation angles from exact misorientation, for special boundaries, that were significantly smaller than observed from the high temperature process. Results indicate the importance of the low temperature part of the two-step strain-annealing process in preparing the microstructure for the higher temperature anneal and commensurate increase in the special fraction.
Date: November 6, 1996
Creator: King, W.E. & Schwartz, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Final report

Description: The Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) was acquired by a grant from the Department of Energy University Research Instrumentation Program and matching funds from Lehigh University and industry. The equipment is installed as part of the electron microscopy laboratories and is being utilized on a regular basis. Over 20 graduate and undergraduate students from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering as well as other department in the University have included this instrument in their research. In addition, the ESEM has been used in several courses including MAT 427 -- Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy, a graduate course offered every other year. Examples are given of how the ESEM has been included in the research programs.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Marder, A.; Barmak, K. & Williams, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface structure and analysis with scanning probe microscopy and electron tunneling spectroscopy. Final report

Description: This report summarizes the results accomplished during the funding period of this grant (June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1998). The projects are (1) room-temperature atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of NbSe{sub 3} doped with various elements and (2) low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of NbSe{sub 3}. In addition, AFM was used to study the surface morphology and defects of GaAs films grown on Ge and Ge/Si substracts.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Hsu, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced lithography for nanofabrication

Description: A novel method for generating lateral features by patterning the naturally forming surface hydride layer on Si is described. Because of the relatively strong chemical bonding between silicon and hydrogen, the hydride layer acts as a robust passivation layer with essentially zero surface mobility at ordinary temperatures. A focused electron beam from a scanning electron microscope was used for patterning. Upon losing the hydrogen passivation the silicon surface sites become highly reactive. Ideally, the lifetime of such a pattern in a clean environment should be infinite. Deliberate exposure of the entire wafer to a suitable gas phase precursor results in selective area film growth on the depassivated pattern. Linewidths and feature sizes of silicon dioxide on silicon below 100nm were achieved upon exposure to air. The silicon dioxide is robust and allows effective pattern transfer by anisotropic wet-chemical etching. In this paper, the mechanism of hydrogen desorption and subsequent pattern formation, and the factors that govern the ultimate pattern resolution will be discussed.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Hui, F. & Eres, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy using a photoexcited low-temperature-grown gallium arsenide tips

Description: The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) revolutionized the field of surface science, enabling the first images of surface structure on an atomic length scale. In the quest for both atomic spatial and temporal resolution several groups have integrated an ultrafast optoelectronic switch which gates the current from the tip, achieving picosecond time resolution. In this paper, the authors describe a novel STM tip consisting of a cleaved GaAs substrate with a 1-{micro}m thick epilayer of low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) deposited on the face. Since the LT-GaAs has a carrier lifetime of 1 ps, photoexcitation of the tip with an ultrafast, above-bandgap pulse both provides carriers for the tunneling current and photoconductively gates (with ps resolution) the current from the tip. They use this tip to detect picosecond transients on a coplanar stripline and demonstrate a temporal resolution of 1.2 ps in tunneling mode.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Donati, G.P.; Some, D.; Rodriguez, G. & Taylor, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Support Services for Ceramic Fiber-Ceramic Matrix Composites

Description: To increase national energy self-sufficiency for the near future, power systems will be required to fire low-grade fuels more efficiently than is currently possible. The typical coal-fired steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum steam temperature of 540 C and a conversion efficiency of 35%. Higher working-fluid temperatures are required to boost efficiency, exposing subsystems to very damaging conditions. Issues of special concern to materials developers are corrosion and warping of hot-gas particulate filters and corrosion and erosion of high-temperature heat exchangers. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is working with the National Energy Technology Laboratory in conjunction with NCC Engineering, Inc., to provide technical assistance and coal by-products to the Fossil Energy Materials Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program investigating materials failure in fossil energy systems. The main activities of the EERC are to assemble coal slag and hot-gas filter ash samples for use by materials researchers, to assist in providing opportunities for realistic tests of advanced materials in pilot-scale fossil energy systems, and to provide analytical support in determining corrosion mechanisms of the exposed materials. In this final report for the project year of September 2000 through August 2001, the facilities at the EERC that can be used by researchers for realistic testing of materials are described. Researchers can include sample coupons in each of these facilities at no cost since they are being operated under separate funding. In addition, two pilot-scale coal combustion tests are described in which material sample coupons were included from researchers involved in the development of fossil energy materials. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive x-ray analyses of the corrosion products and interactions between the surface scales of the coupons and the products of coal combustion found on the coupons exposed ...
Date: August 16, 2001
Creator: Hurley, JP
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multivariate statistical analysis of low-voltage EDS spectrum images

Description: Whereas energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) has been used for compositional analysis in the scanning electron microscope for 30 years, the benefits of using low operating voltages for such analyses have been explored only during the last few years. This paper couples low-voltage EDS with two other emerging areas of characterization: spectrum imaging and multivariate statistical analysis. The specimen analyzed for this study was a finished Intel Pentium processor, with the polyimide protective coating stripped off to expose the final active layers.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, I.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic structures of inversion domain boundaries and dislocations in sintered AlN

Description: AlN is an attractive material because of its mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. However, these properties are often adversely altered by extended defects such as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs), and through impurities associated with the defects, especially oxygen. Thus to improve the properties of the material it is important to understand the structures of the defects. A number of studies have been carried out to characterize these defects using fringe contrast, weak-beam, convergent-beam electron diffraction and conventional high-resolution phase contrast imaging. These techniques all require the use of model structures for data interpretation. In this paper, the authors report a direct determination of the structures of IDBs and dislocation cores in AlN by high resolution Z-contrast imaging using a 300 kV VG HB603U scanning transmission electron microscope, with a probe size of 1.3 A.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Yan, Y.; Chisholm, M.F. & Pennycook, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An application of mechanical leverage to microactuation

Description: Preliminary results on the use of mechanical advantage to convert a short-displacement, high-force actuation mechanism into a long-displacement, medium-force actuator are presented. This micromechanical, mechanically-advantaged actuator is capable of relatively large displacement and force values. The target design values are lever ration of 17.5:1 leading to a {plus_minus}17.5 {mu}N of force throughout providing no less than 2.25 {mu}N of force throughout actuator`s range of motion for an applied voltage of less tan 50 volts. The basis for the mechanical advantage is simple levers with fulcrums.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Sniegowski, J.J. & Smith, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scanning tunneling microscopy of Si donors in GaAs

Description: Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we have identified and characterized Si donors (Si{sub Ga}) in GaAs located on the (110) surface and in subsurface layers. Si{sub Ga} on the surface shows localized features with characteristic structures in good agreement with a recent theoretical calculation. Si{sub Ga} in subsurface layers appears as delocalized protrusions superimposed on the background lattice, which are interpreted in terms of the modification of the tunneling due to the tip-induced band bending perturbed by the Si{sub Ga} Coulomb potential.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Zheng, J.F.; Weber, E.R.; Liu, X.; Newman, N.; Ogletree, D.F. & Salmeron, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

Description: The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.
Date: February 23, 1998
Creator: Wang, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron backscatter diffraction: A powerful tool for phase identification in the SEM

Description: EBSD in the SEM has been developed into a tool that can provide identification of unknown crystalline phases with a spatial resolution that is better than one micrometer. This technique has been applied to a wide range of materials. Use of the HOLZ rings in the EBSD patterns has enabled the reduced unit cell to be determined from unidexed EBSD patterns. This paper introduces EBSD for phase identification and illustrates the technique with examples from metal joining and particle analysis. Reduced unit cell determination from EBSD patterns is then discussed.
Date: December 2, 1999
Creator: Michael, J.R. & Goehner, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A. & Some, D.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Reciprocal Lattice Layer Spacing in Electron Backscatter Diffraction Pattern Analysis

Description: In the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), it is possible to measure the spacing of the layers in the reciprocal lattice. These values are of great use in confirming the identification of phases. The technique derives the layer spacing from the HOLZ rings which appear in patterns from many materials. The method adapts results from convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). For many materials the measured layer spacing compares well with the calculated layer spacing. A noted exception is for higher atomic number materials. In these cases an extrapolation procedure is described that requires layer spacing measurements at a range of accelerating voltages. This procedure is shown to improves the accuracy of the technique significantly. The application of layer spacing measurements in EBSD is shown to be of use for the analysis of two polytypes of SiC.
Date: May 10, 1999
Creator: Eades, J.A. & Michael, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department