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Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

Description: At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.
Date: December 15, 2011
Creator: Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P. & Bixler, Nathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

Description: Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.
Date: October 5, 2007
Creator: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Site 1991 Road Erosion Inventory.

Description: Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 28 pp. Abstract - This paper explains the rationale and results of a 1991 road erosion inventory conducted by members of the USDA Forest Service – Savannah River (FS-SR) and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The inventory provided information for the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) to justify the need for developing an erosion and sediment control program with appropriate funding, personnel, and equipment. Federally managed since the early 1950’s, the SRS is located on 198,344 acres (80,301 hectares) in the South Carolina counties of Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale. Located along the eastern border of the Savannah River, the SRS is located within the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains of South Carolina.
Date: June 22, 2007
Creator: Jones, Cliff.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

Description: Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.
Date: September 12, 2013
Creator: Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P. & Cook, Kary M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

Description: Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.
Date: December 31, 2004
Creator: Franzreb, Kathleen, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Description: The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.
Date: September 21, 2005
Creator: DeBiase, Adrienne E. & Taylor, Barbara E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

Description: SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Teeter, L. & Blake, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current and Future Dynamics of the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Population Inhabiting the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park: Managing For Population Growth

Description: Research aimed to study the dynamics of the SRS population of Red-Cockaded woodpecker and compare to those of other populations to identify factors limiting population growth; recruitment clusters were evaluated to determine what properties of individual cavity trees, surrounding habitat and the surrounding landscape might limit occupancy through natural dispersal. A spatial simulation model was used to project expected dispersal rates and population growth under current conditions and compare those estimates to observed dispersal and population growth. Red cockaded woodpecker populations at SRS are stable considering size. Research reveals that closer placement of recruitment clusters to active territories would produce higher growth rates while decreasing management intensity.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Walters, J. R.; Taylor, T. B.; Daniels, S. J.; Crowder, L. B. & Pridd, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creating a fuels baseline and establishing fire frequency relationships to develop a landscape management strategy at the Savannah River Site.

Description: USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-41. pp 351-366. Abstract—The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy Nuclear Defense Facility and a National Environmental Research Park located in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Prescribed burning is conducted on 15,000 to 20,000 ac annually. We modifi ed standard forest inventory methods to incorporate a complete assessment of fuel components on 622 plots, assessing coarse woody debris, ladder fuels, and the litter and duff layers. Because of deficiencies in south-wide data on litter-duff bulk densities, which are the fuels most often consumed in prescribed fires, we developed new bulk density relationships. Total surface fuel loading across the landscape ranged from 0.8 to 48.7 tons/ac. The variables basal area, stand age, and site index were important in accounting for variability in ladder fuel, coarse woody debris, and litter-duff for pine types. For a given pine stand condition, litter-duff loading decreased in direct proportion to the number of burns in the preceding thirty years. Ladder fuels for loblolly and longleaf increased in direct proportion to the years since the last prescribed burn. The pattern of fuel loading on the SRS reflects stand dynamics, stand management and fire management. It is suggested that the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program can easily modify sampling protocols to incorporate collection of fuels data.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Parresol, Bernard R.; Shea, Dan & Ottmar, Roger.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

Description: Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Sharitz, Rebecca, A. & Mulhouse, John, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

Description: A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.
Date: December 15, 2007
Creator: Barton, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

Description: A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Barton, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

Description: An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.
Date: May 31, 2008
Creator: Walters, Jeffrey, R.; Johnston, Peter, A.; Crowder, Larry, B. & Priddy, Jeffrey, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

Description: AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L. & Imm, Donald, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

Description: The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS‐simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.
Date: July 23, 2009
Creator: Scott, Joe, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.
Date: November 30, 2011
Creator: Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C. & Parresol, Bernard, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Description: The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.
Date: September 21, 2005
Creator: DeBiase, Adrienne E. & Taylor, Barbara E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

Description: This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.
Date: December 20, 2011
Creator: Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen & Shea, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

Description: ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles & Miller, Karl, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

Description: The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E. & Loeb, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department