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Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

Description: Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.
Date: February 26, 2008
Creator: Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.
Date: May 14, 2012
Creator: Backus, Sterling
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved heteroepitaxial MBE GaN growth with a Ga metal buffer layer

Description: We demonstrate that the use of pure gallium (Ga) as a buffer layer results in improved crystal quality of GaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire. The resulting epilayers show electron Hall mobilities as high as 400 cm 2 /Vs at a background carrier concentration of 4 x 10 17 cm -3 , an outstanding value for an MBE-grown GaN layer on sapphire. Structural properties are also improved; the asymmetric (101) X-ray rocking curve width is drastically reduced with respect to that of the reference GaN epilayer grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Nitrided Ga metal layers were investigated for different Ga deposition time. These layers can be regarded as templates for the subsequent Ga main layer growth. It was found that there is an optimum Ga metal layer deposition time for improving the electron mobility in the epilayer. Heating of the Ga metal layer to the epilayer growth temperature under nitrogen plasma is found to be sufficient to produce highly oriented GaN crystals. However, nonuniform surface morphology and incomplete surface coverage were observed after nitridation of comparatively thick Ga metal layers. This is shown to be the reason for the decreasing electron mobility of the epilayers as the Ga metal layer thickness exceeds the optimum value.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Kim, Yihwan; Subramanya, Sudhir G.; Krueger, Joachim; Siegle, Henrik; Shapiro, Noad; Armitage, Robert et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wetting and strength issues at Al/alpha-alumina interfaces

Description: The wetting behavior and strength at aluminum/alumina interfaces has been an active subject of research. Al/alumina applications include ceramic-metal composites and several applications for electronic industries. In this paper the interface strength and microstructure of Al/alpha-alumina was investigated. We discovered that in a solid-state joining, the strength of the joint increases with increasing joining temperature. In a liquid-state joining, the strength of the joint gradually decreases due to the formation of unbonded areas. The strength, sigma sub b, is expressed by the following equation as a function of unbonded area, A: sigma sub b = 2.22 A + 143 (70 percent {le} A {le} 100 percent). The highest strength reached 400 MPa when the interface was formed at around the melting temperature of aluminum. An aluminum layer close to the interface became a single crystal when it was bonded to a sapphire. The following crystallographic orientation relationship is established: (1{bar 1}1){sub Al}//(001){sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, (110){sub Al}//<100>{sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Amorphous alumina islands were formed at the interface. In the amorphous alumina, gamma-alumina nanocrystals grew from the sapphire, with the same orientation relationship to sapphire as above.
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P. & Suganuma, Katsuaki
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Ultra Fast Regeneratively Amplified Titanium Sapphire Laser System, April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1997

Description: A regeneratively-amplified picosecond laser system for studying light-activatable energy-transducing molecules has been constructed with the equipment finds in this multiuser shared equipment grant. Manuscripts describing the use of this apparatus to study the transient release of heat by biomolecules using transient thermal gratings are in preparation.
Date: March 31, 1997
Creator: Schenck, Craig C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging shocked sapphire at 200-460 KBAR: the effect of crystal orientation on optical emission

Description: We have taken 12--50 ns exposure duration images of 200--460 kbar shock loaded, single crystal sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) windows of the c-cut (0001), r-cut (1,-1,0,2) and a-cut (1,1,-2,0) orientations. We find that the spectra of the emission are broad and relatively featureless, extending at least from 760 to 280 nm. Images of this emission at the lower end of the stress range (200--220 kbar) show that it is spatially very heterogeneous, coming from a few seemingly-randomly distributed locations within the crystal. This emission heterogeneity becomes more fine-grained with increasing shock stress. Finally, the r-cut orientation produces significantly less emission than the other two orientations at the same stress.
Date: August 25, 1999
Creator: Hare, D E; Holmes, N C & Webb, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GaN Stress Evolution During Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

Description: The evolution of stress in gallium nitride films on sapphire has been measured in real- time during metal organic chemical vapor deposition. In spite of the 161%0 compressive lattice mismatch of GaN to sapphire, we find that GaN consistently grows in tension at 1050"C. Furthermore, in-situ stress monitoring indicates that there is no measurable relaxation of the tensile growth stress during annealing or thermal cycling.
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Amano, H.; Chason, E.; Figiel, J.; Floro, J.A.; Han, J.; Hearne, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

V-shaped inversion domains in InN grown on c-plane sapphire

Description: Inversion domains with a V-shape were found to nucleate inside a Mg-doped InN heteroepitaxial layer. They resemble Al-polarity domains, observed recently, in N-polarity AlN films. However, the angle between the side-walls of the V-shaped domain and the c-axis differs in these two cases. In InN, this angle is almost two times bigger than that reported for AlN. The origin of V-shaped inversion domains in InN film is not yet clear.
Date: April 27, 2004
Creator: Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Lu, H. & Schaff, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Oxygen Ion Implantation on the Damage and Annealing Kinetics of Iron-Implanted Sapphire

Description: The effects of implanted oxygen on the damage accumulation in sapphire which was previously implanted with iron was studied for (0001) sapphire implanted with iron and then with oxygen. The energies were chosen to give similar projected ranges. One series was implanted with a 1:l ratio (4x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} each) and another with a ratio of 2:3 (4x10{sup 16} fe{sup +}/cm{sup 2}; 6x10{sup 16} O{sup +}/cm{sup 2}). Retained damage, X, in the Al-sublattice, was compared to that produced by implantation of iron alone. The observed disorder was less for the dual implantations suggesting that implantation of oxygen enhanced dynamic recovery during implantation. Samples were annealed for one hour at 800 and 1200 C in an oxidizing and in a reducing atmosphere. No difference was found in the kinetics of recovery in the Al-sublattice between the two dual implant conditions. However, the rate of recovery was different for each from samples implanted with iron alone.
Date: November 14, 1999
Creator: Hunn, J.D. & McHargue, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grain boundary structure and solute segregation in titanium-doped sapphire bicrystals

Description: Solute segregation to ceramic grain boundaries governs material processing and microstructure evolution, and can strongly influence material properties critical to engineering performance. Understanding the evolution and implications of grain boundary chemistry is a vital component in the greater effort to engineer ceramics with controlled microstructures. This study examines solute segregation to engineered grain boundaries in titanium-doped sapphire (Al2O3) bicrystals, and explores relationships between grain boundary structure and chemistry at the nanometer scale using spectroscopic and imaging techniques in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results demonstrate dramatic changes in solute segregation stemming from small fluctuations in grain boundary plane and structure. Titanium and silicon solute species exhibit strong tendencies to segregate to non-basal and basal grain boundary planes, respectively. Evidence suggests that grain boundary faceting occurs in low-angle twis t boundaries to accommodate nonequilibrium solute segregation related to slow specimen cooling rates, while faceting of tilt grain boundaries often occurs to expose special planes of the coincidence site lattice (CSL). Moreover, quantitative analysis of grain boundary chemistry indicates preferential segregation of charged defects to grain boundary dislocations. These results offer direct proof that static dislocations in ionic materials can assume a net charge, and emphasize the importance of interactions between charged point, line, and planar defects in ionic materials. Efforts to understand grain boundary chemistry in terms of space charge theory, elastic misfit and nonequilibrium segregation are discussed for the Al2O3 system.
Date: May 17, 2002
Creator: Taylor, Seth T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Impedance Measurements of Single Crystal MgB2 Films for Radiofrequency Superconductivity Applications

Description: We report microstructure analyses and superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) measurements of large scale epitaxial MgB{sub 2} films. MgB{sub 2} films on 5 cm dia. sapphire disks were fabricated by a Hybrid Physical Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) technique. The electron-beam backscattering diffraction (EBSD) results suggest that the film is a single crystal complying with a MgB{sub 2}(0001) {parallel} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) epitaxial relationship. The SRF properties of different film thicknesses (200 nm and 350 nm) were evaluated under different temperatures and applied fields at 7.4 GHz. A surface resistance of 9 {+-} 2 {mu}{Omega} has been observed at 2.2 K.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Binping Xiao, Xin Zhao, Joshua Spradlin, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, Teng Tan, Xi Xiaoxing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire

Description: Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a &lt;11{bar 2}0&gt; direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a &lt;11{bar 2}0&gt; direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Santala, Melissa & Glaeser, Andreas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of InN Nanorods

Description: InN nanorods were grown on a, c-, and r-plane of sapphire and also on Si (111) and GaN (0001) by non-catalytic, template-free hydride metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and studied by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss (EELS) and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. These nanocrystals have different shapes and different faceting depending on the substrate used and their crystallographic orientation. EELS measurements have confirmed the high purity of these crystals. The observed PL peak was in the range of 0.9-0.95 eV. The strongest PL intensity was observed for the nanocrystals with the larger diameters.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Z.; Li, X.; Kryliouk, Olga; Park, H.J.; Mangum,J. & Anderson, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

InN Nanorods and Epi-layers: Similarities and Differences

Description: Transmission electron microscopy was applied to study InN nanorods grown on the a-, c-and r-plane of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and (111) Si substrates by non-catalytic, template-free hydride metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (H-MOVPE). Single crystal nanorod growth was obtained on all substrates. However, the shape of the nanorods varied depending on the substrate used. For example, nanorods grown on r-plane sapphire and (111) Si have sharp tips. In contrast, growth on a- and c- planes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in flat tips with clear facets on their sides. The structural quality of these nanorods and their growth polarity are compared to crystalline quality, surface roughness, defects and growth polarity of InN layers grown by MBE on the same planes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Z.; Kryliouk, O.; Park, H.J.; Mangum, J.; Anderson, T. & Schaff, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

Description: We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.
Date: April 16, 2010
Creator: Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A & Bonlie, J D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically compressed Bi

Description: We report here on modeling of non-equilibrium phase transitions in Bi samples isentropically compressed to 120 GPa by a ramped drive, which is produced using the Janus laser. In the experiments, the Bi samples are attached to windows of LiF or sapphire, and the velocity history of the sample-window interface is recorded with line VISAR. The 1D response of the targets is modeled using a multiphase Bi EOS, the Andrews-Hayes method for non-equilibrium transitions, and a Boettger-Wallace kinetics model. The pressure drive is deduced by back integration of VISAR data from shots performed with Al samples.
Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Kane, J & Smith, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sapphire Fiber Optics Sensors for Engine Test Instrumentation

Description: This document is the final report for the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle and Prime Photonics, Inc. The purpose of this CRADA was to improve the properties of single crystal sapphire optical fibers for sensor applications. A reactive coating process was developed to form a magnesium aluminate spinel cladding on sapphire optical fibers. The resulting clad fiber had a numerical aperture, NA, of 0.09 as compared with 0.83 for the unclad fiber, dramatically enhancing its usefulness for sensor applications. Because the process allows one to control the diameter of the sapphire core within the fiber, it may be possible using this technology to develop waveguides that approach single-mode transmission character.
Date: September 19, 2003
Creator: Janney, MA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leveraging Python Interoperability Tools to Improve Sapphire's Usability

Description: The Sapphire project at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) develops and applies an extensive set of data mining algorithms for the analysis of large data sets. Sapphire's algorithms are currently available as a set of C++ libraries. However many users prefer higher level scripting languages such as Python for their ease of use and flexibility. In this report, we evaluate four interoperability tools for the purpose of wrapping Sapphire's core functionality with Python. Exposing Sapphire's functionality through a Python interface would increase its usability and connect its algorithms to existing Python tools.
Date: December 10, 2007
Creator: Gezahegne, A & Love, N S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

Description: Engineers from a government-owned engineering and manufacturing facility were contracted by government-owned research laboratory to design and build an S-band telemetry transmitter using Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) technology packaged in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer amplifier. The high-isolation buffer amplifier was designed to provide 16 dB of gain for 2200-3495 MHz as well as 60 dB of isolation for the oscillator core to provide immunity to frequency pulling due to RF load mismatch. Actual measurements of the amplifier gain and isolation showed the gain was approximately 5 dB lower than the simulated gain when all bond-wire and test substrate parasitics were taken into account. The isolation measurements were shown to be 28 dB at the high end of the frequency band but the measurement was more than likely compromised due to the aforementioned bond-wire and test substrate parasitics. The S-band oscillator discussed in this work was designed to operate over a frequency range of 2200 to 2300 MHz with a minimum output power of 0 dBm with a phase-noise of -92 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier. The tuning range was measured to be from 2215 MHz to 2330 MHz with a minimum output power of -7 dBm over the measured frequency range. A phase-noise of -90 dBc was measured at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier.
Date: May 21, 2009
Creator: Garrison, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Energy Anisotropy Effects on Pore-Channel Stability:Rayleigh Instabilities in m-Plane Sapphire

Description: Internal, high-aspect-ratio pore channels with their long axes parallel to the m(10{bar 1}0) plane of sapphire were generated through sequential application of photolithography, ion-beam etching and solid-state diffusion bonding. The axial orientation of channels within the m plane was systematically varied to sample a range of bounding-surface crystallographies. The morphologic evolution of these pore channels during anneals at 1700 C was recorded by postanneal optical microscopy. The development and growth of periodic axial variations in the pore channel radius was observed, and ultimately led to the formation of discrete pores. The wavelength and average pore spacing, assumed to reflect the kinetically dominant perturbation wavelength, varied with the in-plane pore channel orientation, as did the time for complete channel breakup. Results are compared to those previously obtained when pore channels were etched into c(0001)-plane sapphire and annealed under similar conditions. The results indicate a strong effect of surface stability on the evolution behavior.
Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Santala, Melissa K. & Glaeser, Andreas M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials

Description: The process of fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials is reviewed placing emphasis in results derived for pure FCC metals with wavy slip behavior. The relationship between Persistent Slip Bands (PSB`s) and crack initiation will be examined for both single crystals and polycrystals, including the conditions for inter- and transgranular crack nucleation and their connection to type of loading, crystallography and slip geometry. The latter has been found to be an important parameter in the nucleation of intergranular cracks in polycrystals subjected to high strain fatigue, whereby primary slip bands with long slip lengths impinging on a grain boundary produce intergranular crack nucleation under the right conditions. Recent results related to intergranular crack nucleation in copper bicrystals and crack nucleation in Cu/Sapphire interfaces indicate that this mechanism controls crack nucleation in those simpler systems as well. Furthermore, it is found that under multiple slip conditions the crack nucleation location is controlled by the presence of local single slip conditions and long slip lengths for a particular Burgers vector that does not have to be in the primary slip system.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Peralta, P.; Laird, C.; Ramamurty, U.; Suresh, S.; Campbell, G.H.; King, W.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cesium/oxide interactions for ultrathin films on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1{bar 1}02)

Description: The interaction of cesium at the (0001) and (1{bar 1}02) surfaces of sapphire has been investigated using a variety of surface analytical techniques. Reflection mass spectrometric measurements yield initial Cs adsorption probabilities of 0.9 and 0.85 for the unreconstructed (0001) and (1{bar 1}02) surfaces, respectively. The adsorption probability decreases dramatically for these surfaces at critical Cs coverages of 2.O {times} 10{sup 14} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Thermally induced reconstruction of the (0001) surface to form an oxygen deficient surface results in a decrease in the initial probability and capacity for Cs adsorption. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) demonstrates that an intermediate, mixed domain surface yields an initial adsorption probability of 0.5 while a ({radical}31 {times} {radical}31) R {plus_minus} 9{degree} reconstructed surface yields a value of 0.27. Thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) shows that surface reconstruction eliminates the high binding energy states of Cs (2.7 eV/atom), consistent with the observed changes in adsorption probability. In contrast, reconstruction of the (1{bar 1}02) surface produces only minor changes in Cs adsorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that no formal reductive/oxidative chemistry takes place at the interface. We interpret the facile adsorption and strong binding of Cs on sapphire to result from Cs interacting with coordinatively unsaturated oxygen.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Zavadil, K.R. & Ing, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Materials for Use in the Precision Grinding of Optical Components

Description: Precision grinding of optical components is becoming an accepted practice for rapidly and deterministically fabrication optical surfaces to final or near-final surface finish and figure. In this paper, a comparison of grinding techniques and materials is performed. Flat and spherical surfaces were ground in three different substrate materials: BK7 glass, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide ceramic, and sapphire. Spherical surfaces were used to determine the contouring capacity of the process, and flat surfaces were used for surface finish measurements. The recently developed Precitech Optimum 2800 diamond turning and grinding platform was used to grind surfaces in 40mm diameter substrates sapphire and silicon carbide substrates and 200 mm BK7 glass substrates using diamond grinding wheels. The results of this study compare the surface finish and figure for the three materials.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Evans, Boyd M. III; Miller, Arthur C. Jr. & Egert, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Dislocation-Density GaN from a Single Growth on a Textured Substrate

Description: The density of threading dislocations (TD) in GaN grown directly on flat sapphire substrates is typically greater than 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}. Such high dislocation densities degrade both the electronic and photonic properties of the material. The density of dislocations can be decreased by orders of magnitude using cantilever epitaxy (CE), which employs prepatterned sapphire substrates to provide reduced-dimension mesa regions for nucleation and etched trenches between them for suspended lateral growth of GaN or AlGaN. The substrate is prepatterned with narrow lines and etched to a depth that permits coalescence of laterally growing III-N nucleated on the mesa surfaces before vertical growth fills the etched trench. Low dislocation densities typical of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) are obtained in the cantilever regions and the TD density is also reduced up to 1 micrometer from the edge of the support regions.
Date: July 31, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department