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Permeability Upscaling Measured on a Block of Berea Sandstone: Results and Interpretation

Description: To physically investigate permeability upscaling over 13,000 permeability values were measured with four different sample supports (i.e., sample volumes) on a block of Berea Sandstone. At each sample support spatially-exhaustive permeability data sets were measured, subject to consistent flow geometry and boundary conditions, with a specially adapted minipermeameter test system. Here, we present and analyze a subset of the data consisting of 2304 permeability values collected from a single block face oriented normal to stratification. Results reveal a number of distinct and consistent trends (i.e., upscaling) relating changes in key summary statistics to an increasing sample support. Examples include the sample mean and semivariogram range that increase with increasing sample support and the sample variance that decreases. To help interpret the measured mean upscaling we compared it to theoretical models that are only available for somewhat different flow geometries. The comparison suggests that the non-uniform flow imposed by the rninipermeameter coupled with permeability anisotropy at the scale of the local support (i.e., smallest sample support for which data is available) are the primary controls on the measured upscaling. This work demonstrates, experimentally, that it is not always appropriate to treat the local-support permeability as an intrinsic feature of the porous medium; that is, independent of its conditions of measurement.
Date: May 6, 1999
Creator: Tidwell, Vincent C. & Wilson, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The streaming potential of liquid carbon dioxide in BreaSandstone

Description: We report here, for the first time, evolution of the streaming potential coupling coefficient as liquid carbon dioxide infiltrates Berea sandstone. Using 125 Omega-m tap water, the coupling coefficient determined before and after each CO2 flood of five samples averaged approximately -30 mV/0.1 MPa. After liquid CO2 passed through the specimens displacing all mobile pore water, trapped water remained and the coupling coefficient was approximately -3 mV/0.1 MPa. A bound water limit of the coupling coefficient for liquid CO2 flow was found using an air-dried sample to be -0.02 mV/0.1 MPa. For initially water-saturated samples, bulk resistivity varied during CO2 invasion from 330 Ohm-m, to 150 Ohm-m during CO2/water mixing, to a final value of 380 Ohm-m. Results suggest that trapped and bound water control electrical conduction and the electrokinetic response. Applications include monitoring CO2 injectate in subsurface reservoirs using the self potential method.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Moore, J.; Glaser, S.; Morrison, F. & Hoversten, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature elastic constants and nonlinear acoustic response in rocks and complex materials

Description: The 'P-M Space' model of Guyer and McCall has some success in describing the large nonlinear effects ('slow dynamics') observed by Johnson et al. in rocks. The model uses elements which couple classical nonlinear elasticity with hysteretic components. The actual processes and scales corresponding to the model elements are not yet defined, however it is reasonable to seek energy scales by studying the low-temperature dependence of the elastic constants. We have measured qualitative elastic properties of basalt and Berea sandstone from room temperature down to 4 K using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). A simple elastic solid should show a monotonic increase in the elastic constants as temperature decreases. The basalt samples show this gross behavior but the sandstone shows a very unexpected anomalous regime between 40 K and 200 K where the elastic constants decrease with decreasing temperature. Both rocks show temperature-dependent structure in both the modulus and internal friction, and also significant hysteresis, indicating history and rate-dependent properties. This data provides insight into the time and energy scales of dynamical effects observed in sandstones.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Darling, T. W. (Timothy W.); Ulrich, T. J. (Timothy J.); Johnson, P. A. (Paul A.) & Tencate, J. A. (James A.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microseismic Monitoring of the Mounds Drill Cuttings Injection Tests

Description: This paper describes the microseismic mapping of repeated injections of drill cuttings into two separate formations at a test site near Mounds, OK. Injections were performed in sandstone and shale formations at depths of 830 and 595 m, respectively. Typical injection disposal was simulated using multiple small-volume injections over a three-day period, with long shut-in periods interspersed between the injections. Microseismic monitoring was achieved using a 5-level array of wireline-run, triaxial- accelerometer receivers in a monitor well 76 m from the disposed well. Results of the mapped microseismic locations showed that the disposal domti W= generally aligns with the major horizontal stress with some variations in azimuth and that wide variations in height and length growth occurred with continued injections. These experiments show that the cuttings injection process cm be adequately monitored from a downhole, wireline-run receiver array, thus providing process control and environmental assurance.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Branagan, P.T.; Mahrer, K.D.; Moschovidis, Z.A.; Warpinski, N.R. & Wolhart, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

Description: Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: McRae, L.; Holtz, M. & Hentz, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope constraints on the involvement of fluids in the San Andreas Fault System, California

Description: Fluids are suspected to play a major role in earthquake mechanics, especially in the case of the weak San Andreas Fault (SAF). Models developed to explain the weakness of the fault are similar but rely on different fluid sources. A recent study of groundwaters associated with the SAF has provided evidence for a geopressured mantle fluid source (Kennedy et al., 1997). We present here an isotope study comparing deformation zones (gouges, breccias, fault veins, slickensides, cataclasites), and vein fillings with their hosts and the fluids associated with these materials, as sampled by fluid inclusions. We are investigating ca. 250 samples from over 20 localities along the San Andreas and adjacent faults from South San Francisco to East Los Angeles. Samples from the exhumed San Gabriel Fault, a deeper equivalent of the SAF, are included as well as samples from the Santa Ynez Fault, another former strand of the SAF embedded in Miocene limestones. All the major lithologies (granites, gneisses, sandstones, limestones, marbles and serpentinites) have been sampled for isotope analyses of C, O, H, He, Ne, Ar, Sr, Nd, and Pb.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Pili, E.; Kennedy, B.M.; Conrad, S.M.; Gratier, J.-P. & Poitrasson, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic and Engineering Characterization of East Ford Field, Reeves County, Texas

Description: The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. The project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit: it contained an estimated 18.4 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Guzman, Jose I. & Zirczy, Helena
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

Description: Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones. Current technology relies on the use of cross-linking agents to initiate gelation. The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC no. 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability. Permeability modification was investigated by injecting solubilized biopolymer into Berea sandstone cores and defining the contribution of pH, salt, temperature, and Schuricht crude oil on biopolymer gelation. The biopolymer was soluble in KOH at a pH greater than 11.4 and gelled when the pH dropped below 10.8. The Berea sandstone core buffered the biopolymer solution, decreasing the pH sufficiently to form a gel, which subsequently decreased the permeability. The effluent pH of the control cores injected with 0.01 {und M} KOH (pH 12.0) and 0.10{und M} KOH (pH 13.0) decreased to 10.6 and 12.7, respectively. The permeability of the sandstone core injected with biopolymer was decreased to greater than 95% of the original permeability at 25 C in the presence of 2% NaCl, and Schuricht crude oil; however, the permeability increased when the temperature of the core was increased to 60 C. Residual resistance factors as high as 792 were seen in Berea cores treated with biopolymer. The buffering capacity of sandstone has been demonstrated to reduce the pH of a biopolymer solution sufficiently to cause the polymer to form a stable in-situ gel. This finding could potentially lead to alternate technology for permeability ...
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Fox, Snadra L.; Xie, X.; Schaller, K. D.; Robertson, E. P. & Bala, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

Description: The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.
Date: January 15, 2006
Creator: G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

Description: The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.
Date: July 31, 2005
Creator: Stevens, Scott H. & Tye, B. Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic Frequency Difference Generation to Characterize Fluids in Saturated Berea Sandstone.

Description: The use of nonlinear acoustics to characterize fluids in porous media is presented. The acoustic nonlinearity in sandstone is affected by the presence of water or oil. This difference in properties that affect the sound propagation through such media can be used to determine whether a piece of sandstone contains water or oil. Traditional methods of characterizing porous media usually rely on the transmission or reflection of a single ultrasonic probe pulse. The technique presented in this paper uses a method of generating a probe pulse inside the porous medium from the interaction of two pulses. Information about the medium is then contained in the propagation of this probe signal back to a receiver. The main advantage of this approach is that it allows implementation of this technique inside a borehole for characterizing the porous media outside.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Keatkowski, C. S. (MST-11) & Sinha, D. N. (Dipen N)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

Description: This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.
Date: February 16, 2007
Creator: Bhattacharya, Janok P. & McMechan, George A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite and Saline Waste Water

Description: Batch and semi-batch experiments were conducted to assess feasibility of utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry and produced brine from the Oriskany sandstone formation to sequester CO2 • Bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume sequestered 9.5 g of CO2 per liter of mixture (100 psig of CO2 at 20 ºC) • Carbon trapping is accomplished primarily through solubilization • Solution of the product mixture was neutralized following carbonation • Flow-through carbonation at 25 ºC and 1 atm. demonstrates that carbonation rates are acceptable for proposed process applications
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Dilmore, R.M.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Allen, D.E.; Hedges, S.W.; Frommell, E.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout within weakly cementedsandstones

Description: Breakout (wall failure) of boreholes within the earth can take several forms depending upon physical properties of the surrounding rock and the stress and flow conditions. Three distinctive modes of breakout are (I) extensile breakout observed in brittle rocks (e.g., Haimson and Herrick, 1986), (II) shear breakout in soft and clastic rocks (Zoback et al., 1985), and (III) fracture-like, slot-shaped breakout within highly porous granular rocks (Bessinger et al., 1997; Haimson and Song, 1998). During fluid production and injection within weakly cemented high-porosity rocks, the third type of failure could result in sustained and excessive sand production (disintegration of the rock's granular matrix and debris production). An objective of this research is to investigate the physical conditions that result in the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout, via laboratory experiments. Our laboratory borehole breakout experiment was conducted using synthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity and strength. Block samples containing a single through-goring borehole were subjected to anisotropic stresses within a specially designed tri-axial loading cell. A series of studies was conducted to examine the impact of (1) stress anisotropy around the borehole, (2) rock strength, and (3) fluid flow rate within the borehole on the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout. The geometry of the breakout was determined after the experiment using X-ray CT. As observed in other studies (Hamison and Song, 1998; Nakagawa and Myer, 2001), flow within a borehole plays a critical role in extending the slot-shaped breakout. The results of our experiments indicated that the width of the breakout was narrower for stronger rock, possibly due to higher resistance to erosion, and the orientation of the breakout plane was better defined for a borehole subjected to stronger stress anisotropy. In most cases, the breakout grew rapidly once the borehole wall started to fail. This 'run-away' failure growth is induced ...
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Nakagawa, Seiji; Tomutsa, Liviu & Myer, Larry R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core Scale and Pore Scale Studies of Carbon Dioxide Migration Insaline Formations

Description: Understanding core scale and pore scale migration of CO2 will improve our ability to predict storage capacity and determine the effectiveness of solubility and capillary (residual CO2) trapping. While the theoretical underpinnings of multi-phase flow are well developed for oil and gas production, there are few, if any measurements relevant to CO2 storage in saline formations. To fill this gap, core scale and porescale measurements of CO2 migration in sandstone are being conducted.
Date: October 3, 2005
Creator: Benson, Sally M.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy; Kneafsey,Timothy & Miljkovic, Ljubinko
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

Description: {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G. & Kennedy, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous time random walk analysis of solute transport in fractured porous media

Description: The objective of this work is to discuss solute transport phenomena in fractured porous media, where the macroscopic transport of contaminants in the highly permeable interconnected fractures can be strongly affected by solute exchange with the porous rock matrix. We are interested in a wide range of rock types, with matrix hydraulic conductivities varying from almost impermeable (e.g., granites) to somewhat permeable (e.g., porous sandstones). In the first case, molecular diffusion is the only transport process causing the transfer of contaminants between the fractures and the matrix blocks. In the second case, additional solute transfer occurs as a result of a combination of advective and dispersive transport mechanisms, with considerable impact on the macroscopic transport behavior. We start our study by conducting numerical tracer experiments employing a discrete (microscopic) representation of fractures and matrix. Using the discrete simulations as a surrogate for the 'correct' transport behavior, we then evaluate the accuracy of macroscopic (continuum) approaches in comparison with the discrete results. However, instead of using dual-continuum models, which are quite often used to account for this type of heterogeneity, we develop a macroscopic model based on the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) framework, which characterizes the interaction between the fractured and porous rock domains by using a probability distribution function of residence times. A parametric study of how CTRW parameters evolve is presented, describing transport as a function of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between fractured and porous domains.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Cortis, Andrea; Cortis, Andrea & Birkholzer, Jens
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The interplay of fractures and sedimentary architecture: Natural gas from reservoirs in the Molina sandstones, Piceance Basin, Colorado

Description: The Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation produces natural gas from several fields along the Colorado River in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. The Molina Member is a distinctive sandstone that was deposited in a unique fluvial environment of shallow-water floods. This is recorded by the dominance of plane-parallel bedding in many of the sandstones. The Molina sandstones crop out on the western edge of the basin, and have been projected into the subsurface and across the basin to correlate with thinner sandy units of the Wasatch Formation at the eastern side of the basin. Detailed study, however, has shown that the sedimentary characteristics of the type-section Molina sandstones are incompatible with a model in which the eastern sandstones are its distal facies equivalent. Rather, the eastern sandstones represent separate and unrelated sedimentary systems that prograded into the basin from nearby source-area highlands. Therefore, only the subsurface {open_quotes}Molina{close_quotes} reservoirs that are in close proximity to the western edge of the basin are continuous with the type-section sandstones. Reservoirs in the Grand Valley and Rulison gas fields were deposited in separate fluvial systems. These sandstones contain more typical fluvial sedimentary structures such as crossbeds and lateral accretion surfaces. Natural fractures play an important role in enhancing the conductivity and permeability of the Molina and related sandstones of the Wasatch Formation.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Lorenz, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microscale Flow Modeling in Geologic Materials

Description: Three-dimensional imaging techniques, numerical methods for simulating flow and transport, and emergent computational architectures are combined to enable fundamental studies of fluid flow at the pore scale. High resolution reconstructions of porous media obtained using laser scanning confocal microscopy reduce sampling artifacts to sub-micron features, and simultaneously capture multiple grain length scales. However, the volumetric image data sets are extremely large, and there are significant computational challenges in utilizing this information effectively. The principal problem lies in the complexity of the geometry and the retention of this structure in numerical analyses. Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods provide a direct means to simulate transport processes in complex geometric domains due to the unique ability to treat accurately and efficiently the multitude of discrete boundary conditions. LB methods are numerically explicit as formulated, and this characteristic is exploited through a mapping of the numerical domain to distributed computing architectures. These techniques are applied to perform single phase flow simulations in 3D data sets obtained from cores of Berea sandstone using confocal microscopy. Simulations are performed using both a purpose-built distributed processor computer and a massively parallel processer (MPP) platform.
Date: February 16, 1999
Creator: Fredrich, J.T. & O'Connor, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

Description: There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Mohanty, Kishore K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Investigation of Relative Permeability Upscaling from the Micro-Scale to the Macro-Scale

Description: During this reporting period, shown experimentally that the optical coherence imaging system can acquire information on grain interfaces and void shape for a maximum depth of half a millimeter into sandstone. The measurement of interfacial area per volume (IAV), capillary pressure and saturation in two dimensional micro-models structures has shown the existence of a unique relationship among these hydraulic parameters for different pore geometry. The measurement of interfacial area per volume on a three-dimensional natural sample, i.e., sandstone, has shown the homogeneity of IAV with depth in a sample when the fluids are in equilibrium.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Cheng, JiangTao; Yu, Ping; Giordano, Nicholas; Mustata, Mirela; Chen, Diaquam et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permeability reduction by pyrobitumen, mineralization, and stress along large natural fractures in sandstones at 18,300 ft. depth: Destruction of a reservoir

Description: Production of gas from the Frontier Formation at 18,300 R depth in the Frewen No. 4 Deep well, eastern Green River basin (Wyoming), was uneconomic despite the presence of numerous open natural fractures. Initial production tested at 500 MCFD, but dropped from 360 MCFD to 140 MCFD during a 10-day production test, and the well was abandoned. Examination of the fractures in the core suggests several probable reasons for this poor production. One factor is the presence of a hydrocarbon residue (carbon) which filled much of the porosity left in the smaller fractures after mineralization. An equally important factor is probably the reorientation of the in situ horizontal compressive stress to a trend normal to the main fractures, and which now acts to close fracture apertures rapidly during reservoir drawdown. This data set has unpleasant implications for the search for similar, deep fractured reservoirs.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Lorenz, J.C.; Billingsley, R.L. & Evans, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear interaction of plane elastic waves

Description: The paper presents basic first order results of nonlinear elastic theory by Murnaghan for elastic wave propagation in isotropic solids. The authors especially address the problem of resonant scattering of two collimated beams and present analytical solutions for amplitudes of all possible types of resonant interactions for elastic plane waves. For estimation of nonlinear scattered waves they use measured elastic parameters for sandstone. The most profound nonlinear effect is expected for interactions of two SH waves generating compressional P wave at sum frequency. Estimations show that nonlinear phenomena is likely to be observed in seismic data. Basic equations of nonlinear five-constant theory by Murnaghan are also presented.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Korneev, V.A.; Nihei, K.T. & Myer, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department