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Cuba Sanctions: Legislative Restrictions Limiting the Normalization of Relations

Description: This report provides information on legislative provisions restricting relations with Cuba. It lists the various provisions of law comprising economic sanctions on Cuba, including key laws that are the statutory basis of the embargo, and provides information on the authority to lift or waive these restrictions.
Date: February 13, 2015
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress.
Date: February 7, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doing Business with Iran: EU-Iran Trade and Investment Relations

Description: This report discusses the European Union's (EU's) resumption of business with Iran after the signing of the 2015 nuclear disarmament agreement which led to the lifting of nuclear related sanctions. It outlines rates of business and major investments in Iran by European companies and the effect possible U.S. re-imposition of sanctions against Iran may have on the market and U.S.-EU relations.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: Cimino-Isaacs, Cathleen D. & Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report discusses the Iran nuclear agreement that was made on July 14, 2015 and the lifting of sanctions related to their nuclear weapons programs which occurred on January 16, 2016. It also outlines Iran's obligations under the agreement and Congressional discussion of adjustments to the agreement or withdrawal.
Date: May 25, 2018
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burma: Economic Sanctions

Description: This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions.
Date: August 3, 2009
Creator: Niksch, Larry A. & Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-EU Cooperation on Ukraine and Russia

Description: This report examines the U.S. and EU reactions to the crisis in Ukraine, focusing on the EU's hesitation to issue severe sanctions on par with the U.S. prior to the crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17. The report discusses the EU's new, wider-ranging sanctions in the wake of MH17 and its implications on U.S.-EU relations.
Date: August 7, 2014
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Mix, Derek E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Sanctions

Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. CRS has no way to independently corroborate any of the reporting on which these examples are based and no mandate to assess whether any firm or other entity is complying with U.S. or international sanctions against Iran. The sections are grouped by function, in the chronological order in which the themes have emerged
Date: September 15, 2017
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing U.S. Agricultural Exports to Cuba

Description: This report discusses a new policy approach toward Cuba that, in part, seeks to reduce the role of long-standing U.S. sanctions on commercial relations with Cuba while also promoting greater engagement and normal relations with the island nation.
Date: June 24, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burma: Economic Sanctions

Description: This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions.
Date: December 14, 2007
Creator: Niksch, Larry A. & Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress.
Date: July 16, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Sanctions: Legislation in the 106th Congress

Description: This report tracks legislation relating to the use of economic sanctions in pursuit of foreign policy or national security objectives. Separate sections are given to the areas of greatest activity: sanctions imposed against India and Pakistan; exemptions of food and medicine exports; and sanctions reform. A separate table is included listing sanctions measures that were introduced but received no consideration, including measures pertaining to export controls, nonproliferation, drug certifications, and the sanctions regimes leveled, or proposed to be leveled, against Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Serbia and Montenegro, and other countries.
Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

India and Pakistan: Current U.S. Economic Sanctions

Description: In 1998, India and Pakistan each conducted tests of nuclear explosive devices, drawing world condemnation. The United States and a number of India’s and Pakistan’s major trading partners imposed economic sanctions in response. Most U.S. economic sanctions were lifted or eased within a few months of their imposition, however, and Congress gave the President the authority to remove all remaining restrictions in 1999.
Date: October 12, 2001
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, and Missile Proliferation Sanctions: Selected Current Law

Description: This report offers a listing and brief description of legal provisions that require or authorize the imposition of some form of economic sanction against countries, companies, persons, or entities that violate U.S. nonproliferation norms. For each provision, information is included on what triggers the imposition of sanctions, their duration, what authority the President has to delay or abstain from imposing sanctions, and what authority the President has to waive the imposition of sanctions.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treasury Proposes Rule that Could Deliver a 'Death Sentence" to Chinese Bank

Description: This report discusses the Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) proposal to invoke the "Fifth Special Measure" on the Chinese Bank of Dandong for its alleged role in funding and and processing transactions for North Korea's weapons programs.
Date: October 30, 2017
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Shuey, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Description: Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program

Description: This report discusses the “oil-for-food” program which represents a longstanding U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining pressure on the Iraqi government to comply with all relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions.
Date: November 29, 2000
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations

Description: This report discusses issues with the “oil-for-food” program (OFFP), which was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. The program terminated following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the assumption of sovereignty by an interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, and the lifting of Saddam-era U.N. sanctions. However, since the fall of the regime, there have been new allegations of mismanagement and abuse of the program, including allegations that Saddam Hussein’s regime manipulated the program to influence U.N. officials, contractors, and politicians and businessmen in numerous countries.
Date: April 6, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Description: Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products.
Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval

Description: This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton’s February 26, 1999 certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.1 These resolutions (H.J.Res. 35--Bachus, and H.J.Res. 43--Mica and Gilman) would disapprove the President’s certification, but would permit him to avoid withholding of assistance to Mexico if he determined that vital national interests required such assistance.
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress.
Date: October 19, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department