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Perceptions of Work Group and Managerial Behaviors as Antecedents of a Salesperson's Commitment, Performance, and Turnover

Description: Theoretically grounded and empirically testable conceptualizations that offer alternative explanations regarding sales force performance and turnover can: (a) enhance understanding regarding these pivotal outcomes, and (b) augment an organization's capability to increase sales and decrease turnover. The study advances one such explanation by conceptualizing and testing a perceptual model that links a salesperson's psychological climate dimensions to organizational commitment, performance, and turnover. The framework the study proposes respecifies the leadership and work group dimensions of psychological climate into four distinct perceptions (i.e., a salesperson's perceptions regarding the behaviors of work group, sales manager, senior management, and non sales employees in the organization). These climate dimensions are posited to influence positively a salesperson's organizational commitment which consequently influences positively the salesperson's effort and intention to stay with the organization. The proposed outcomes of organizational commitment result in increased performance and decreased turnover. Success beliefs and perceived behavioral control are posited to moderate the relationship between the salesperson's organizational commitment and effort. The study tests the hypothesized relationships on a sample of salespersons belonging to a telecommunications organization utilizing path and hierarchical regression analyses.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Gulati, Rajesh, 1964-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Internet Sales and State Taxes: Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses Internet sales, which do not always include sales and use tax. Customers who do not pay sales or use tax to the vendor are typically required to remit the tax to their home state.
Date: December 1, 2016
Creator: Lowry, Sean & Lunder, Erika K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Attempt to Determine Means of Predicting Sales Success of Salesmen of National Chemsearch Corporation

Description: The purpose of this study is to analyze the information which is available to determine what past experience, personality and temperament traits, etc., distinguish the successful from the unsuccessful salesman, in order to have some criteria on which to base future selection.
Date: August 1962
Creator: Jenkins, Omer
Partner: UNT Libraries

A study of consultants' and directors' attitudes toward recruiting new consultants into the direct sales organization

Description: The problem considered was that many direct sales personnel do not recruit others into the sales force even though monetary rewards and recognition for achievement can be earned for successful recruitment. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes that were characteristic of consultants who were successful recruiters within a direct sales organization.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Sharp, Patsy Lenelle Horn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Applicability of Conjoint Measurement to the Selection Process of Professional Sales Personnel

Description: The study examines the potential of conjoint analysis to provide and apply quantitative data to situations previously limited to non-quantitative analysis within the selection process. Chapter I presents a brief introduction to the sales force selection process. A discussion of the importance of effective selection to the organization as well as an explanation of the objectives, methodology, research questions, and limitations complete the chapter. Chapter II provides a detailed description of the contemporary sales force selection process. The chapter explains the objective and subjective activities and techniques utilized by management in selection decisions. Chapter III describes the steps involved in conjoint analysis and the specific conjoint measurement technique employed in the study. The questionnaire employed and the source of data are described in Chapter IV. An analysis of the results of the research completes the chapter. Chapter V presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of the study.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Light, C. David
Partner: UNT Libraries

United States Lifts Remaining Restrictions on Arms Sales to Vietnam

Description: This report discusses the recent removal of remaining U.S. restrictions on sales of lethal weapons and related services to Vietnam. During the Vietnam War (1955-1975), the United States imposed a complete embargo on arms sales to North Vietnam, and then expanded it to cover the entire country after Communist forces defeated U.S-backed South Vietnamese government in 1975. In 2007, the Bush Administration eased the ban by allowing non-lethal defense items and defense services to be exported on a case-by-case basis.
Date: May 23, 2016
Creator: Manyin, Mark E. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Implementing a Competency-Based Performance Management System on Measures of Sales Performance

Description: Use of competency models has exploded in recent years. Unfortunately, the empirical research to validate such systems is scarce. This study explores the relationship between Competency-based Performance Management Systems and sales performance to determine whether the use of these systems increases performance. Performance data from sales representatives in a medical products company were examined to determine changes in performance following the introduction of the Competency-based Performance Management System (N=64). Correlations with performance were obtained for each competency dimension to determine if any factors were highly correlated with performance and if state-factors were more positively correlated with performance than trait-factors (N=66). The study found no significant relationship between implementation of a Competency-based Performance Management System and sales performance. Also state-factors were not more positively correlated with sales performance than trait-factors.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Lynch, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party states of such military items.
Date: unknown
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Description: This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2004 through 2011. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008

Description: This report is provides data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions.
Date: September 4, 2009
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2003-2010

Description: This report is prepared annually to provide Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
Date: September 22, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The influence of sales force newcomers' met expectations on selected outcome variables: Development and testing of a model

Description: Sales management researchers and practitioners give considerable attention to early employment expectations, attitudes, and behaviors primarily because of a desire to specify the cognition process leading to performance and retention of salespeople. While a massive body of literature exists concerning turnover of employees and determinants of employee performance, more empirical study specific to the sales force as a research population is needed to assess the nature of turnover and performance. Because the bulk of salesperson turnover occurs in early employment, particular attention needs to be devoted to the cognitive process of newcomers to the sales force. The present work examines expectation-based and perception-oriented models of performance and retention for sales force new hires. Interests of this investigation focus on the initial expectations of newly hired sales representatives and on how the degree of fulfillment of these expectations relates to subsequent performance and retention behavior. Extant research suggests that the degree to which expectations are met positively influences mediating variables such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and indirectly influences outcomes such as job performance and retention of newcomers. Alternatively, some researchers contend that these results are due to improper measurement of met expectations. A longitudinal research design and alternative measurement methods are employed here to better assess the role of met/unmet expectations. The proposed study is based on theoretical research from a variety of academic disciplines, and the results of the study will have multi-disciplinary implications. Contributions include: (a) replication and extension of theoretical research concerning processes leading to performance and retention of sales force newcomers, (b) a thorough examination of met expectations as a precursor to early sales force outcomes, and (c) methodological advances in the measurement of met expectations.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Rylander, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Levels of resourcefulness and motivation as they relate to sales force success: An examination of correlates using the hope theory.

Description: This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between individual salesperson's levels of goal-directed cognition and motivation and their professional success as determined by the percentage of sales goals achieved. Salespersons represented two companies with national sales forces: one from the financial services industry and one from the apparel manufacturing industry. Both groups of salespeople were responsible for complex selling tasks. The skill sets for these professionals included high levels of communication skills, extensive product knowledge, and competitive market knowledge. Survey research, both paper and pencil and online, was conducted using the Hope Scale developed by C. R. Snyder and associates (1991). Hope is defined as a two-dimensional construct of goal-directed thinking: resourcefulness, thoughtful planning to overcome obstacles to goals, and motivation, cognition to sustain momentum toward goal achievement. Theoretically, upon assessing salespersons' Hope scores, organizations would be better prepared to assist those with low Hope Scale Scores (HSS) in one of the two areas. Those with low resourcefulness scores could be trained in cognitive techniques to overcome obstacles to goal achievement. Those with low motivational scores would be identified for further analysis, from a developmental perspective, to better determine what personally initiates and sustains motivation to attain their goals (Snyder, 1991). This study affirmed two of three parts of the hope theory with regard to salespeople. High Hope scores showed significant correlations with high goal achievement, as did one of the subset scores, motivation. The resourcefulness subset score did not correlate significantly with high goal achievement, and also produced low reliability scores.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Pool, Patricia W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients, 2000-2007

Description: This report provides background data on United States arms sales agreements with and deliveries to its major purchasers during calendar years 2000-2007. In a series of data tables, it lists the total dollar values of U.S. government-to-government arms sales agreements with its top five purchasers in five specific regions of the world for three specific periods: 200-2003, 2004-2007, and 2007 alone, and the total dollar values of U.S. arms deliveries to its top five purchasers in those same regions and time periods. The report also provides data tables listing the total dollar values of U.S. government-to-government arms agreements with and deliveries to its top 10 purchasers worldwide for those same time periods.
Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted with a National Sales Tax

Description: Proposals to replace all or part of the income tax and proposals for national health care have sparked congressional interest in possible sources of additional revenue. A value-added tax (VAT) or a national sales tax (NST) have been frequently discussed as possible new tax services. Both the VAT and the NST are taxes on the consumption of goods and services and are conceptually similar. Yet, these taxes also have significant differences. This issue brief discusses some of the potential policy implications associated with these differences.
Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department