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Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT): a new system safety program

Description: Experiences of Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC), in the development and implementation of a system safety program for ANC and for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) are discussed. Aerojet Nuclear is the prime operating contractor for ERDA, formerly AEC, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ERDA sponsored ''MORT'' system safety program is described along with the process whereby formal system safety methods are incorporated into a stable organization. Specifically, a discussion is given of initial development of MORT; pilot program trials conducted at ANC; implementation methodology; and reaction of the ANC organization. (auth)
Date: April 30, 1976
Creator: Clark, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Obstacles to Laser Safety

Description: The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.
Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Barat, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack design pressure rating

Description: The SNF project was directed to increase the MCO pressure rating by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) unless the action was shown to be cost prohibitive. This guidance was driven by RL's assessment that there was a need to improve margin and reduce risks associated with assumptions supporting the bounding pressure calculation for the MCO Sealing Strategy. Although more recent pressure analyses show a bounding MCO pressure of 50 psig, RL still considers it prudent to retain the pressure margin the 450 psig rating provides. This rating creates a real, clearly definable margin and significantly reduces the risk that the safety basis will be challenged.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Smith, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method for abbreviating the fault tree graphical representation

Description: Fault tree analysis is being widely used for reliability and safety analysis of systems encountered in the nuclear industry and elsewhere. A disadvantage of the fault tree method is the voluminous fault tree graphical representation that conventionally results from analysis of a complex system. Previous methods for shortening the fault tree graphical representation include (1) transfers within the fault tree, and (2) the use of the SAMPLE (K out of N logic) gate, the MATRIX gate, and the SUMMATION gate. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce TABULATION gates as a method to abbreviate the fault tree graphical representation. These new gates reduce the cost of analysis and generally increase the system behavior visibility that is inherent in the fault tree technique. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1974
Creator: Stewart, M.E.; Fussell, J.B. & Crump, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory services series: an electrical outlet and corded equipment inspection program

Description: A research and development laboratory has thousands of electrical outlets providing power to laboratories, offices, shops, and service areas. These outlets provide power for a wide variety of portable equipment and tools that are equipped with cord and plug. Electric safety requires a periodic check of outlet grounding capability and continuing inspection and repair of corded equipment. Personnel, equipment, reports, procedures, and schedule requirements are reported.
Date: April 1, 1976
Creator: Davis, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic Safety Guide

Description: This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Eagling, D.G. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This paper describes a safety design basis documentation change control process. The process identifies elements that can be used to manage the project/facility configuration during design evolution through the Initiation, Definition, and Execution project phases. The project phases addressed by the process are defined in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, in support of DOE project Critical Decisions (CD). This approach has been developed for application to two Hanford Site projects in their early CD phases and is considered to be a key element of safety and design integration. As described in the work that has been performed, the purpose of change control is to maintain consistency among design requirements, the physical configuration, related facility documentation, and the nuclear safety basis during the evolution of the design. The process developed (1) ensures an appropriate level of rigor is applied at each project phase and (2) is considered to implement the requirements and guidance provided in DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. Presentation of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008 or managing nuclear safety documentation in support of projects in-process.
Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: GW, RYAN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: SK, OMBERG
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Preprint

Description: When hydrogen gas is used or stored within a building, as with a hydrogen-powered vehicle parked in a residential garage, any leakage of unignited H2 will mix with indoor air and may form a flammable mixture. One approach to safety engineering relies on buoyancy-driven, passive ventilation of H2 from the building through vents to the outside.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.; Ohi, J. & Hewett, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The surveillance program for 3013 containers is based, in part, on the separation of containers into various bins related to potential container failure mechanisms. The containers are assigned to bins based on moisture content and pre-storage estimates of content chemistry. While moisture content is measured during the packaging of each container, chemistry estimates are made by using a combination of process knowledge, packaging data and prompt gamma analyses to establish the moisture and chloride/fluoride content of the materials. Packages with high moisture and chloride/fluoride contents receive more detailed surveillances than packages with less chloride/fluoride and/or moisture. Moisture verification measurements and chemical analyses performed during the surveillance program provided an opportunity to validate the binning process. Validation results demonstrated that the binning effort was generally successful in placing the containers in the appropriate bin for surveillance and analysis.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Mcclard, J. & Kessinger, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical predictions and experimental results of a dry bay fire environment.

Description: The primary objective of the Safety and Survivability of Aircraft Initiative is to improve the safety and survivability of systems by using validated computational models to predict the hazard posed by a fire. To meet this need, computational model predictions and experimental data have been obtained to provide insight into the thermal environment inside an aircraft dry bay. The calculations were performed using the Vulcan fire code, and the experiments were completed using a specially designed full-scale fixture. The focus of this report is to present comparisons of the Vulcan results with experimental data for a selected test scenario and to assess the capability of the Vulcan fire field model to accurately predict dry bay fire scenarios. Also included is an assessment of the sensitivity of the fire model predictions to boundary condition distribution and grid resolution. To facilitate the comparison with experimental results, a brief description of the dry bay fire test fixture and a detailed specification of the geometry and boundary conditions are included. Overall, the Vulcan fire field model has shown the capability to predict the thermal hazard posed by a sustained pool fire within a dry bay compartment of an aircraft; although, more extensive experimental data and rigorous comparison are required for model validation.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Gill, Walter & Black, Amalia Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which ...
Date: October 26, 2009
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration under uncertainty for finite element models of masonry monuments

Description: Historical unreinforced masonry buildings often include features such as load bearing unreinforced masonry vaults and their supporting framework of piers, fill, buttresses, and walls. The masonry vaults of such buildings are among the most vulnerable structural components and certainly among the most challenging to analyze. The versatility of finite element (FE) analyses in incorporating various constitutive laws, as well as practically all geometric configurations, has resulted in the widespread use of the FE method for the analysis of complex unreinforced masonry structures over the last three decades. However, an FE model is only as accurate as its input parameters, and there are two fundamental challenges while defining FE model input parameters: (1) material properties and (2) support conditions. The difficulties in defining these two aspects of the FE model arise from the lack of knowledge in the common engineering understanding of masonry behavior. As a result, engineers are unable to define these FE model input parameters with certainty, and, inevitably, uncertainties are introduced to the FE model.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Atamturktur, Sezer,; Hemez, Francois, & Unal, Cetin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in hot-wire electroexplosive devices

Description: Several possible design improvements in hot-wire electroexplosive devices were investigated. These were: an arc-resistant header, greater bridgewire-post heat dissipation area, reacting metal bridgewires, and a secondary explosive substitute for primary explosive. Tests using an SE-1 test fixture with four header-bridgewire models showed highly promising results for raising the overall hot-wire ignition safety margins in electrostatic and rf environments without large increases in firing energy. Various electrical characteristics of the four models are given, together with electrical characteristics and function times of the devices loaded with the secondary explosive. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1973
Creator: Joppa, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCO Monitoring activity description

Description: Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.
Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: SEXTON, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Tanks Initiative risk management guide

Description: This project-specific Risk Management Guide describes the general approach and process being used by the HTI Project to manage risk associated with execution of the HTI mission. It includes the initial identification of risk and the quantification of its likelihood and severity of its consequences. It further addresses the formulation of risk mitigation plans, periodic statusing of the Risk Management List, and risk closure.
Date: October 29, 1997
Creator: Schaus, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Monahan, S.P. & McLaughlin, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department