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Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)

Description: This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Collins, E.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deactivating a major nuclear fuels reprocessing facility cost effectively

Description: This paper describes three key processes used in deactivating the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, a large, complex nuclear reprocessing facility, 15 months ahead of schedule and $77 million under budget. The organization was reengineered to refine its business processes and more effectively organize around the deactivation work scope. Multi-disciplined work teams were formed to be self-sufficient and empowered to make decisions and perform work. A number of benefits were realized by reengineering. A comprehensive process to develop end points which clearly identified specific results and the post-project facility configuration was developed so all areas of a facility were addressed. Clear and specific end points allowed teams to focus on completing deactivation activities and helped ensure there were no unfulfilled end-of-project expectations. The RCRA regulations require closure of permitted facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations which may essentially necessitate decommissioning. A more cost effective approach was adopted which significantly reduced risk to human health and the environment by taking the facility to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to disposition. PUREX thus became the first large reprocessing facility with active TSD [treatment, storage, and disposal] units to be deactivated under the RCRA regulations.
Date: August 15, 1997
Creator: LeBaron, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

Description: With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This `was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE).
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Jierree, C. & Ticknor, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approved Site Treatment Plan, Volumes 1 and 2. Revision 4

Description: The US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), has prepared the Site Treatment Plan (STP) for Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed wastes in accordance with RCRA Section 3021(b), and SCDHEC has approved the STP (except for certain offsite wastes) and issued an order enforcing the STP commitments in Volume 1. DOE-SR and SCDHEC agree that this STP fulfills the requirements contained in the FFCAct, RCRA Section 3021, and therefore, pursuant to Section 105(a) of the FFCAct (RCRA Section 3021(b)(5)), DOE`s requirements are to implement the plan for the development of treatment capacities and technologies pursuant to RCRA Section 3021. Emerging and new technologies not yet considered may be identified to manage waste more safely, effectively, and at lower cost than technologies currently identified in the plan. DOE will continue to evaluate and develop technologies that offer potential advantages in public acceptance, privatization, consolidation, risk abatement, performance, and life-cycle cost. Should technologies that offer such advantages be identified, DOE may request a revision/modification of the STP in accordance with the provisions of Consent Order 95-22-HW. The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume 1) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume 2) and is provided for information.
Date: March 22, 1996
Creator: Helmich, E.H.; Molen, G. & Noller, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mobilization plan for the Y-12 9409-5 tank storage facility RCRA closure plan. Final report. Revision 1

Description: This mobilization plan identifies the activities and equipment necessary to begin the field sampling for the Oak Ridge Y-12 9409-5 Diked Tank Storage Facility (DTSF) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure. Elements of the plan outline the necessary components of each mobilization task and identify whether SAIC or the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Environmental Restoration Division will be responsible for task coordination. Field work will be conducted in two phases: mobilization phase and soil sampling phase. Training and medical monitoring, access, permits and passes, decontamination/staging area, equipment, and management are covered in this document.
Date: November 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA`s corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ``stabilization`` initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ``Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,`` is currently being developed by DOE`s Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE`s new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Ranek, N.L. & Coalgate, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of low level mixed waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: The characterization program was conducted to maintain regulatory compliance and support ongoing waste treatment and disposal activities. The characterization team conducted a characterization review of wastes stored at the Laboratory that contain both a low-level radioactive and a hazardous component. The team addressed only those wastes generated before January 1993. The wastes reviewed, referred to as legacy wastes, had been generated before the implementation of comprehensive waste acceptance documentation procedures. The review was performed to verify existing RCRA code assignments and was required as part of the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The review entailed identifying all legacy LLMW items in storage, collecting existing documentation, contacting and interviewing generators, and reviewing code assignments based upon information from knowledge of process (KOP) as allowed by RCRA. The team identified 7,546 legacy waste items in the current inventory, and determined that 4,200 required further RCRA characterization and documentation. KOP characterization was successful for accurately assigning RCRA codes for all but 117 of the 4,200 items within the scope of work. As a result of KOP interviews, 714 waste items were determined to be non-hazardous, while 276 were determined to be non-radioactive. Other wastes were stored as suspect radioactive. Many of the suspect radioactive wastes were certified by the generators as non-radioactive and will eventually be removed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hepworth, E.; Montoya, A. & Holizer, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

Description: Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Kirner, N.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials recovery from shredder residues

Description: Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J. & Pomykala, J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The marriage of RCRA and CERCLA at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

Description: A key goal of the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) signed in July of 1996 was to provide a seamless marriage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (and other media specific programs) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the implementing agencies of each. This paper examines the two years since the signing of RFCA and identifies the successes, failures, and stresses of the marriage. RFCA has provided an excellent vehicle for regulatory and substantive progress at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats facility. The key for a fully successful marriage is to build on the accomplishments to date and to continually improve the internal and external systems and relationships. To date, the parties can be proud of both the substantial accomplishment of substantive environmental work and the regulatory systems that have enabled the work.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Shelton, D.C. & Brooks, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and analysis plan for the 100-D Ponds voluntary remediation project

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) describes the sampling and analytical activities which will be performed to support closure of the 100-D Ponds Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit. This SAP includes the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) presented in Section 2.0, and the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) described in Section 3.0. The FSP defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed, and the QAPjP provides or includes information on the requirements for precision, accuracy, representativeness, comparability, and completeness of the analytical data. This sampling and analysis plan was developed using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Seven-Step Data Quality Objectives (DQO) Guidance (EPA, 1994). The purpose of the DQO meetings was (1) to identify the contaminants of concern and their cleanup levels under the Washington State Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA, WAC-173-340) Method B, and (2) to determine the number and locations of samples necessary to verify that the 100-D Ponds meet the cleanup criteria. The data collected will be used to support RCRA closure of this TSD unit.
Date: August 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE responses to Ecology review comments for ``Sampling and analysis plans for the 100-D Ponds voluntary remediation project``

Description: The Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the sampling and analytical activities which will be performed to support closure of the 100-D Ponds at the Hanford Reservation. This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to Ecology review for ``Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 100-D Ponds Voluntary Remediation Project.``
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed environmental remediation at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating proposed environmental remediation activity at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), Argonne, Illinois. The environmental remediation work would (1) reduce, eliminate, or prevent the release of contaminants from a number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and two radiologically contaminated sites located in areas contiguous with SWMUs, and (2) decrease the potential for exposure of the public, ANL-E employees, and wildlife to such contaminants. The actions proposed for SWMUs are required to comply with the RCRA corrective action process and corrective action requirements of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency; the actions proposed are also required to reduce the potential for continued contaminant release. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R. & Monzyk, B.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

Description: This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Date: June 12, 1995
Creator: Knaus, Z.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and Energy from Municipal Waste

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that addresses "important questions that have arisen about the feasibility of various approaches to resource recovery, recycling, and reuse" and presents "the results of an examination of important technological, economic, and institutional factors" (p. 3).
Date: July 1979
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA corrective action: Statement of basis and response to comments decision documents

Description: Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Statement of Basis (SB) and Response to Comments (RTC) decision documents are prepared when a corrective action is implemented through either a permit or enforcement order [RCRA {section} 3008(h)]. EPA`s Guidance on RCRA Corrective Action Decision Documents presents a standard format for documenting RCRA corrective action decisions. The guidance clarifies the roles and responsibilities of regulatory agencies in developing and issuing decision documents. DOE, for some corrective actions, may be directed to prepare materials for the Statement of Basis. EPA`s guidance is intended to provide consistency in the organization and content of decision documents as well as promote clear and logical presentations of rationales for remedy selection decisions based on facility-specific information and supporting analysis. This Information Brief summarizes EPA`s guidance on SB and RTC decision documents.
Date: July 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA ground water assessment plans and annual ground water quality assessment reports at interim status facilities

Description: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates waste management activities at hazardous waste management facilities. Whenever a facility becomes subject to regulation under RCRA, the facility owner or operator is required to notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of hazardous waste activity and within 30 days submit the initial ``Part A`` portion of an operating permit application [RCRA {section} 3010] to EPA or to the State authorized to operate a hazardous waste management program in lieu of EPA. A facility that has submitted its Part A application is defined as having ``interim status,`` and is subject to the regulations in 40 CFR Part 265. Interim status facilities that contain hazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, or land treatment facilities are required by 40 CFR 265 Subpart F to implement a groundwater monitoring program that consists of several phased monitoring activities and is capable of determining the facility`s impact on the quality of ground water in the uppermost aquifer underlying the facility. This information brief is the fourth in a series on the general topic of groundwater monitoring requirements under RCRA at interim status and permitted facilities. This information brief focuses on the last phase of activities, implementation of an Assessment Program, and highlights recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discussion paper on applicability of oil and grease analysis for RCRA closure criteria

Description: A site characterization (SC) was performed for the Building 9409-5 Diked Tank Storage Facility. The initial SC indicated areas which had oil and grease levels above the criteria of the currently proposed RCRA closure plan. After further investigation, it was demonstrated that the oil and grease parameter may not be an accurate indication of a release from this facility and should not be included as a contaminant of concern in the closure criteria.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

Description: This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive guideline for procurement of products containing recovered materials. Effective date: May 1, 1996

Description: In Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Congress acknowledges the importance of recycling by mandating that government agencies increase their purchases of products containing recovered materials (i.e., waste materials and by-products that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste, not including materials and by-products generated from and commonly reused within an original manufacturing process). To further that mandate, RCRA specifies that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develop and issue procurement guidelines that designate specific items that are or can be made with recovered materials, and recommend practices with respect to the procurement of recovered materials and items containing such materials. Procuring agencies (Federal, State, and agencies of political subdivisions of States that use appropriated Federal funds) and their contractors are required to buy designated items with the highest recovered material content practicable. This Regulatory Bulletin describes the first Comprehensive Procurement Guideline (CPG) (with 19 newly designated items) and Recovered Materials Advisory Notices (RMANs) (with recommendations for purchasing the items) developed by EPA using this new process.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability study sample exemption: update

Description: This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.
Date: August 14, 1997
Creator: Benally, A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department