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RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF {sup 228}Ra IN WATER SAMPLES

Description: A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.
Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Maxwell, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modifications of epoxy resins for improved mechanical and tribological performances and their effects on curing kinetics.

Description: A commercial epoxy, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, was modified by two different routes. One was the addition of silica to produce epoxy composites. Three different silane coupling agents, glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (GPS), -methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (MAMS) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane (MPS), were used as silica-surface modifiers. The effects of silica content, together with the effects of chemical surface treatment of silica, were studied. The results indicate that epoxy composites with silica exhibit mechanical and tribological properties as well as curing kinetics different than the pure epoxy. The optimum silica content for improved mechanical and tribological properties (low friction coefficient and wear rate) was different for each type of silane coupling agent. An unequivocal correlation between good mechanical and improved tribological properties was not found. Activation energy of overall reactions was affected by the addition of silica modified with MAMS and MPS, but not with GPS. The second route was modification by fluorination. A new fluoro-epoxy oligomer was synthesized and incorporated into a commercial epoxy by a conventional blending method. The oligomer functioned as a catalyst in the curing of epoxy and polyamine. Thermal stability of the blends decreased slightly at a high oligomer content. Higher wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and higher toughness were found with increasing oligomer content; thus in this case there was a correlation between good mechanical and improved tribological properties. The results indicated that increasing toughness and formation of a transfer film contribute to improved tribological performances.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Chonkaew, Wunpen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Beta Lambda

Description: The abstract painting is composed of wavy, diagonal lines in hues of green, red, blue, yellow, orange, gold, black, brown and purple painted on canvas.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1960
Creator: Louis, Morris, 1912-1962
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Canoptic Legerdemain

Description: Mixed media sculpture of layered irregular colored resin, aluminum mesh and stainless steel. A human figure is depicted on the far left side of the piece.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1990~
Creator: Graves, Nancy
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Scalable Fabrication of Natural-Fiber Reinforced Composites with Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties by Incorporating Powdered Activated Carbon

Description: This article discusses preparing Kenaf fiber-polyester composites incorporated with powdered activated carbon (PAC) using the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding(VARTM) process.
Date: November 17, 2015
Creator: Xia, Changlei; Zhang, Shifeng; Ren, Han; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Zhang, Hualiang; Cai, Liping et al.
Partner: UNT College of Engineering

Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

Description: Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific ...
Date: October 31, 2005
Creator: Banerjee, Sujit
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

Description: A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Taylor, Paul Allen & Johnson, Heather Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sorption of Cesium From Aqueous Waste Solution on SuperLig 644 Resin

Description: The removal of cesium from aqueous waste solution was investigated in a column setup using SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The resin was significantly coarser in size than those used in previous studies because of hydraulic problems encountered during pilot-scale tests. The bed volume (BV = 140) at the onset of breakthrough surpassed the design requirement of 100 BV at 50 percent breakthrough. The percent of cesium removed by the resin at the onset of breakthrough was 99.96. The elution of cesium with 0.5 M HNO3 was satisfactory with a peak BV of 2.5. The elution BV for C/Co = 0.01 was 10, which is less than the target of 15 BV. The percent of sorbed cesium eluted from the resin was 99.88 percent. In addition, the BV of the various solutions used for the supporting process steps (feed displacement, post-feed displacement rinse, post-elution rinse, and regeneration) of the cesium ion exchange system was sufficient.
Date: August 24, 2004
Creator: ADU-WUSU, KOFI
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decomposition of Rare Earth Loaded Resin Particles

Description: The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCR and D) program within the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is evaluating nuclear fuel cycle options, including once-through, modified open, and fully closed cycles. Each of these scenarios may utilize quite different fuel management schemes and variation in fuel types may include high thermal conductivity UO{sub 2}, thoria-based, TRISO, metal, advanced ceramic (nitride, carbide, composite, etc.), and minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels and targets. Researchers from the US, Europe, and japan are investigating methods of fabricating high-specific activity spherical particles for fuel and target applications. The capital, operating, and maintenance costs of such a fuel fabrication facility can be significant, thus fuel synthesis and fabrication processes that minimize waste and process losses, and require less footprint are desired. Investigations have been performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) studying the impact of americium and curium on the fuel fabrication process. proof of concept was demonstrated for fabrication of MA-bearing spherical particles, however additional development will be needed for engineering scale-up. Researchers at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) and the Japan Atomic Energy Association (JAEA) have collaborated on research with ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuels using spherical particles as the ceramic component dispersed in the metal matrix. Recent work at the CEA evaluates the burning of MA in the blanket region of sodium fast reactors. There is also interest in burning MA in Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The fabrication of uranium-MA oxide pellets for a fast reactor blanket or MA-bearing fuel for CANDU reactors may benefit from a low-loss dedicated footprint for producing MA-spherical particles. One method for producing MA-bearing spherical particles is loading the actinide metal on a cation exchange resin. The AG-50W resin is made of sulfonic acid functional groups attached to ...
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Voit, Stewart L & Rawn, Claudia J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A One-dimensional Transient Model of Down-flow Through a Swelling Packed Porous Bed

Description: A transient model of down-flow through an ion exchange column in which the resin swells has been developed. The model is herein described and results are presented. Wall friction can lead to high bed stresses when the resin in columns with high length to diameter ratios swells. These stresses can lead to high and potentially excursive hydraulic pressure drops along a column. A non-dimensional grouping that effectively correlates the final steady-state hydraulic behavior of a column with the resin compressibility, column geometric, and flow parameters has been determined.
Date: August 13, 2004
Creator: SHADDAY, MARTIN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E. & Pierce, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles

Description: This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management.
Date: November 26, 2001
Creator: Jay A. LaVerne, Principal Investigator
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department