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Removing Spray Residue From Apples and Pears

Description: This bulletin gives instructions for removing spray residue from apples and pears. "Control of the codling moth has become essential in the production of marketable apples and pears in practically all deciduous-fruit districts of the United States, and through spraying with lead-aresenate has been for many years the accepted control method. Apples and pears sprayed with lead arsenate bear at harvest time an arsenical residue, and this residue must be removed in the interest of public health." -- p. 1
Date: 1931
Creator: Diehl, H. C.; Lutz, J. M. (Jacob Martin), 1908-1968 & Ryall, A. Lloyd (Albert Lloyd), 1904-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Four Streams Draining Different Land-Use Areas in Pennsylvania

Description: From introduction: This study was conducted to determine the relative degree of pesticide contamination in four small drainage basins and to determine if pesticide residues were present in amounts that could be hazardous to humans or detrimental to aquatic life.
Date: June 1975
Creator: Truhlar, John F. & Reed, Lloyd A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of a Non-Targeted LC-MS Approach for Identifying Ancient Proteins: Method Development on Bone to Improve Artifact Residue Analysis

Description: This article discusses validation of the potential of an extraction and characterization approach via application to ancient bone proteins, as part of a larger method-development project for innovation and improvement of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of protein residues from cooking pottery.
Date: September 4, 2015
Creator: Barker, Andrew; Dombrosky, Jonathan; Chaput, Dale; Venables, Barney J.; Wolverton, Steven J. & Stevens, Stanley M.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences


Description: In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Redelius, Per
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

Description: Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: David Muth, Jr.; Abodeely, Jared; Nelson, Richard; McCorkle, Douglas; Koch, Joshua & Bryden, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

Description: This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Kerstetter, James D. & Lyons, John Kim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homology with vesicle fusion mediator syntaxin-1a predicts determinants ofepimorphin/syntaxin-2 function in mammary epithelial morphogenesis

Description: We have shown that branching morphogenesis of mammary ductal structures requires the action of the morphogen epimorphin/syntaxin-2. Epimorphin, originally identified as an extracellular molecule, is identical to syntaxin-2, an intracellular molecule that is a member of the extensively investigated syntaxin family of proteins that mediate vesicle trafficking. We show here that although epimorphin/syntaxin-2 is highly homologous to syntaxin-1a, only epimorphin/syntaxin-2 can stimulate mammary branching morphogenesis. We construct a homology model of epimorphin/syntaxin-2 based on the published structure of syntaxin-1a, and we use this model to identify the structural motif responsible for the morphogenic activity. We identify four residues located within the cleft between helices B and C that differ between syntaxin-1a and epimorphin/syntaxin-2; through site-directed mutagenesis of these four amino acids, we confer the properties of epimorphin for cell adhesion, gene activation, and branching morphogenesis onto the inactive syntaxin-1a template. These results provide a dramatic demonstration of the use of structural information about one molecule to define a functional motif of a second molecule that is related at the sequence level but highly divergent functionally.
Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Chen, Connie S.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bennett, Simone; Radisky, Evette S.; Hirai, Yohei et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

Description: We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.
Date: November 16, 2011
Creator: Baxamusa, S H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993

Description: A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods.
Date: May 19, 1993
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues

Description: Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods.
Date: November 9, 1992
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The interactions of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) with the four 5{prime}-deoxyribonucleotides were probed using absorption spectra of the charge transfer bands and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of nucleotide-NQO mixtures. Applying a Benesi-Hildebrand type equation to the spectral data yielded equilibrium constants (K(dpG:NQO) = 16 M{sup -1} K(dpA:NQO) = 12 M{sup -1}, K(dpT:NQO) = K(dpC:NQO) = 4 M{sup -1}) which suggest the preference of NQO for the guanine residue in a DNA. From {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR data, a structure for the dpG:NQO complex is proposed.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Winkle, S.A. & Tinoco Jr, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Canyon dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues

Description: An alternative to the FB-Line scrap recovery dissolver was desired for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) residues from the plutonium reduction process due to the potential generation of hydrogen gas concentrations above the lower flammability limit. To address this concern, a flowsheet was developed for the F-Canyon dissolvers. The dissolvers are continually purged with nominally 33 SCFM of air; therefore the generation of flammable gas concentrations should not be a concern. Following removal of crucible fragments, small batches of the remaining sand fines or slag chunks containing less than approximately 350 grams of plutonium can be dissolved using the center insert in each of the four annular dissolver ports to address nuclear criticality safety concerns. Complete dissolution of the sand fines and slag chunks was achieved in laboratory experiments by heating between 75 and 85 degrees Celsius in a 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M (hydrogen) fluoride solution. Under these conditions, the sand and slag samples dissolved between 1 and 3 hours. Complete dissolution of plutonium and calcium fluorides in the slag required adjusting the dissolver solution to 7.5 wt% aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). Once ANN was added to a dissolver solution, further dissolution of any plutonium oxide (PuO2) in successive charges was not practical due to complexation of the fluoride by aluminum. During the laboratory experiments, well mixed solutions were necessary to achieve rapid dissolution rates. When agitation was not provided, sand fines dissolved very slowly. Measurement of the hydrogen gas generation rate during dissolution of slag samples was used to estimate the amount of metal in the chunks. Depending upon the yield of the reduction, the values ranged between approximately 1 (good yield) and 20% (poor yield). Aging of the slag will reduce the potential for hydrogen generation as calcium metal oxidizes over time. The potential for excessive ...
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Rudisill, T.S.; Gray, J.H.; Karraker, D.G. & Chandler, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

Description: The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Somasundaran, Prof. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flowsheet modifications for dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues in the F-canyon dissolvers

Description: An initial flowsheet for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) was developed for the F- Canyon dissolvers as an alternative to dissolution in FB-Line. In that flowsheet, the sand fines were separated from the slag chunks and crucible fragments. Those two SS{ampersand}C streams were packaged separately in mild-steel cans for dissolution in the 6.4D dissolver. Nuclear safety constraints limited the dissolver charge to approximately 350 grams of plutonium in two of the three wells of the dissolver insert and required 0.23M (molar) boron as a soluble neutron poison in the 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M fluoride dissolver solution. During the first dissolution of SS{ampersand}C fines, it became apparent that a significant amount of the plutonium charged to the 6.4D dissolver did not dissolve in the time predicted by previous laboratory experiments. The extended dissolution time was attributed to fluoride complexation by boron. An extensive research and development (R{ampersand}D) program was initiated to investigate the dissolution chemistry and the physical configuration of the dissolver insert to understand what flowsheet modifications were needed to achieve a viable dissolution process.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Rudisill, T.S.; Karraker, D.G. & Graham, F.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams The Kinetics of Coal Liquefaction Distillation Resid Conversion

Description: Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (DOE Contract N o. DE- AC22- 94PC93054), the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. Th e program at Delaware was conducted be tween August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivit y toward hydrocracking of coal- derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An Introduction and Summary of th e project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here. INTRODUCTION Resid hydrocracking is a key reaction of modern (i. e., distillate- producing) coal liquefactio n processes. Coals are readily converted to resid a nd lighter products in the liquefaction process. The resid is combined with fr esh coal in a ratio often greater than 1: 1, and some vacuum gas oil and is recycled to be further converted. Understanding the chemistry of resids and resi d reactivity is important to improve direct liquefaction process design and to achieve economi c objectives for direct coal liquefaction. Computational models that predict resid conversion from the chemical characteristics of the resids and reaction conditions would be a cost- efficient way to explore process variables. Implementation of such models could aid in the design an d operation of liquefaction facilities.
Date: June 4, 1998
Creator: D.Campbell; Nichols, D.G.; Pazuchanics, D.J.; H.Huang; M.T.Klein; Winschel, R.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

Description: CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).
Date: June 9, 1998
Creator: Robbins, G. A.; Winschel, R. A. & Brandes, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department