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Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

Description: In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian & Widder, Sarah H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

Description: This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be assessed but did not account for weather variation. From this statistical analysis, ...
Date: April 30, 2012
Creator: Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato & Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

Description: Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Moore, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

Description: Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.
Date: November 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

Description: This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney & Stephenson, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

Description: Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or incorporation into existing software tools would improve the efficiency of the process. Retrofit ...
Date: September 30, 2012
Creator: Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H. & Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential Mobility and Living Arrangements of a Group of Aged Persons Prior to Institutionalization

Description: The purpose of this investigation, conceived in its broadest sense, was to study the living arrangements of older persons over a specific period of time in an attempt to arrive at some generalizations about the nature and changes of these arrangements as they relate to certain sociological variables.
Date: January 1963
Creator: Martin, Cora Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Bastakiya Quarter, Basta Art Cafe

Description: This view shows one building, the Basta Art Cafe, in the neighborhood of Bastakiya in Dubai. Outside the cafe can be seen some bright blue benches. The building also sports a wind tower for cooling.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: unknown
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Supplement to Recommended Minimum Requirements for Plumbing: Progress Revision, May, 1931

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Standards discussing revisions and supplements made to minimum plumbing requirements for residential and commercial buildings. The revisions and supplements to previous reports are presented. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1931
Creator: United States. Bureau of Standards.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

Description: Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.
Date: June 1, 2013
Creator: Stecher, D. & Imm, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

Description: Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.
Date: July 21, 2002
Creator: Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Program Evaluation of a Residential Treatment Center with a Family Counseling Component

Description: This study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of a residential treatment program for adolescents and young adults. The purpose of the investigation was to measure the impact of residential treatment with and without family counseling on the variables of work-school adjustment and return to treatment.
Date: December 1983
Creator: DeFoore, Bill, 1950-
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Survey to Determine Current Practices and Procedures in Counseling in Residential Treatment Centers for Emotionally Disturbed Children

Description: Since this is a survey to determine the current practices and procedures of counseling in residential treatment centers for emotionally disturbed children, the problem of this study may be stated as follows: (1) to review related literature in the field of counseling and guidance in order to determine the best educational thought as to what constitutes a good counseling program; (2) by means of a survey in the form of a questionnaire, to determine what is actually being done in counseling work in established residential treatment centers for disturbed children; (3) to determine, from information received, good counseling work practices for treating emotionally disturbed children.
Date: 1958
Creator: Blair, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Investigation on the Standard for Energy and Environmental Designof Residential House in China

Description: In this research, the authors have carried out the researchto investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of theresidential building in China. Efforts have also been made to promote abetter understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard forarchitects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficientbuilding design in China. The results can mainly summarized as follows:(1) As for the thermal environment design, the climate of China has beenclassified five zones. (2) The sunlight, lighting, ventilationenvironment of residential building have been specified in the newstandards. (3) Prescribed the building design elements, such as layout,orientation, shape, color, plan and the type of window. In particular,the thermal insulation measures for heating system has been added in hotsummer and cold winter region, which was not described in old standard.(4) It is admitted that there is still a difference compared with thestandard of many foreign countries, and the improvement in the furtherheat insulation performance and positive execution of the standardcontinue to be expected.
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Yumiko, Ogawa; Weijun, Gao; Nan, Zhou; Toshiyuki, Watanabe; Hiroshi,Yoshino & Toshio, Ojima
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

Description: This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.
Date: April 15, 2011
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

Description: The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.
Date: January 1, 2014
Creator: Martin, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expert Meeting Report: Energy Savings You Can Bank On

Description: In October 2011, ARBI organized and conducted an Experts' Meeting on the topic of performance guarantees and financing vehicles for Energy Efficiency Upgrades. The meeting brought together technical, policy, and financial experts, including researchers, experienced installation contractors, and innovative energy business leaders, in order to discuss the opportunities and challenges for the energy efficiency upgrade industry to increase market uptake of Home Energy Upgrades (HEUs) through innovative offerings, such as performance guarantees. The meeting had several primary goals. First, it sought to understand how other industries have developed successful models for financing renewable energy installations while providing performance guarantees. This has been most recently demonstrated by the solar leasing industry. Second, the meeting explored the applicability of such business models to the energy efficiency upgrade industry. Third, the meeting sought to identify technical impediments to performance guarantees for energy efficiency retrofits. Fourth, the meeting sought to provide a common framework for these goals within the context of current financing mechanisms for energy efficiency upgrades.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Beman, M.; Springer, J.; Smith, P. & Porse, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

Description: This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Springer, D. & Dakin, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

Description: Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W. & Mantha, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

Description: This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Frozyna, K. & Badger, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

Description: During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Aldrich, R. & Arena, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department