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Estimates of Refrigerator Loads in Public Housing Based on Metered Consumption Data

Description: The New York Power Authority (NYPA), the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), and the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Energy (DOE) have joined in a project to replace refrigerators in New York City public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models. This project laid the ground work for the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and DOE to enable housing authorities throughout the United States to bulk-purchase energy-efficient appliances. DOE helped develop and plan the program through the ENERGY STAR@ Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Nofiwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL was subsequently asked to conduct the savings evahations for 1996 and 1997. PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data. The 1996 metering study of refrigerator energy usage in New York City public housing (Pratt and Miller 1997) established the need and justification for a regression-model-based approach to an energy savings estimate. The need originated in logistical difficulties associated with sampling the population and pen?orming a stratified analysis. Commonly, refrigerators[a) with high representation in the popula- tion were missed in the sampling schedule, leaving significant holes in the sample and difficulties for the stratified anrdysis. The just{jfcation was found in the fact that strata (distinct groups of identical refrigerators) were not statistically distinct in terms of their label ratio (ratio of metered consumption to label rating). This finding suggested a general regression model could be used to represent the consumption of all refrigerators in the population. In 1996 a simple two-coefficient regression model, a function of only the refrigerator label rating, was developed and used to represent the existing population of refrigerators. A key concept used in the 1997 study grew from findings in a small number of apartments metered in 1996 with a ...
Date: September 11, 1998
Creator: Miller, JD & Pratt, RG
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

Description: A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prefabricated heat-exchanging fireplace. Final technical report

Description: A heat-exchanging fireplace was installed in a 2000 square foot home and the standard air distribution equipment was ducted directly to the forced-air heating system of the home. The standard air distribution equipment for the fireplace included two squirrel-cage blowers which were connected to a thermostat, allowing a choice of temperature ranges; and a snap disc thermostat was used to disconnect the blowers in order to avoid blowing cold air after the fire died out. Arranged in this manner, one is able to set the regular home thermostat a few degrees lower than the fireplace thermostat, and this will allow the regular heating system to turn on after the fire has gone out in the fireplace. Energy consumption in both the fireplace and the conventional heating system was monitored throughout a heating season and then compared with past heating seasons when only a conventional heating system was used.
Date: June 15, 1981
Creator: Schleper, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D. & Rosenfield, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

Description: This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C. & Brendemuehl, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent development in green buildings

Description: Because of the environmental concerns about some materials used in buildings, particularly chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids used as the blowing agent for insulation materials and as refrigerants used in the air conditioning systems have led to a search for environmentally safe alternatives. For insulation materials, new non-CFC blowing agents are still under development. However, the old insulation materials in the buildings will stay because they do not pose any further environmental damage. It is a different story for refrigerants used in air conditioning systems. This study reports that the change-over from CFC to non-CFC refrigerants in the existing and future air conditioning equipment could be a chance not only to take care of the environmental concerns, but to save energy as well. Alternative air conditioning technologies, such as the desiccant dehumidification and absorption systems, and the potential of some natural substances, such as carbon dioxide, as the future refrigerants are also discussed.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mei, V.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Using a residential-size duct system in a controlled laboratory setting, the repeatability and accuracy of the Delta Q test for air leakage in residential duct systems have been measured. More than 100 Delta Q tests were performed. These were compared with results using fan pressurization and also with results of a procedure (Delta Q Plus) that uses leakage hole-size information to select the leakage pressures to be used in the Delta Q algorithm. The average error in supply or return leakage for the fan-pressurization test was 6.4% of system fan flow. For the Delta Q test it was 3.4% of fan flow, while for Delta Q Plus it was 1.9% of fan flow.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: ANDREWS,J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical support documentation for the Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) data base in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 4

Description: This report focuses on those areas where substantial improvements have been made in simulation techniques or analysis of results concerning the Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES).
Date: September 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

Description: This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.
Date: September 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

Description: This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L. & Meyers, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficiency in military housing: Monitoring to support revitalization guidebook

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory is working with the US Army, the US Air Force, and the US Department of Energy to develop a guidebook to be used by architectural and engineering firms in the design phases of military family housing revitalization projects. The purpose of the guidebook is to ensure that energy efficiency is properly addressed in revitalization projects. Monitoring space-heating and cooling energy used in houses both before and after they are revitalized is necessary in order to assess the amount of energy saved by the revitalization process. Three different methods of conducting monitoring experiments are discussed, as well as the methods of data analysis to be used. Houses will be monitored individually using standard gas and electric meters to obtain heating and cooling data for the houses. The authors recommend conducting monitoring programs at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, and Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, because of their project schedules and potential for savings. They do not recommend doing any monitoring at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, because of the relatively small savings that they expect revitalization to accomplish there. They do not recommend seeking out alternative sites for monitoring because of the time required to become familiar with the installation and also because revitalization schedules at alternative sites may be no better than those at the sites they inspected.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Levins, W. P. & Ternes, M. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

Description: Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F. & Strasser, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical support documentation for the Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 2

Description: The Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) program is designed to identify levels of thermal integrity (e.g., insulation levels, glazing layers, equipment efficiencies, etc.) that are cost effective for typical residential structures and to create a residential energy standard based on these levels. This document contains technical background the explains the data and the algorithms used by the program.
Date: September 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantifying occupant energy behavior using pattern analysis techniques

Description: Occupant energy behavior is widely agreed upon to have a major influence over the amount of energy used in buildings. Few attempts have been made to quantify this energy behavior, even though vast amounts of end-use data containing useful information lay fallow. This paper describes analysis techniques developed to extract behavioral information from collected residential end-use data. Analysis of the averages, standard deviations and frequency distributions of hourly data can yield important behavioral information. Pattern analysis can be used to group similar daily energy patterns together for a particular end-use or set of end-uses. Resulting pattern groups can then be examined statistically using multinomial logit modeling to find their likelihood of occurrence for a given set of daily conditions. These techniques were tested successfully using end-use data for families living in four heavily instrumented residences. Energy behaviors were analyzed for individual families during each heating season of the study. These behaviors (indoor temperature, ventilation load, water heating, large appliance energy, and miscellaneous outlet energy) capture how occupants directly control the residence. The pattern analysis and multinomial logit model were able to match the occupant behavior correctly 40 to 70% of the time. The steadier behaviors of indoor temperature and ventilation were matched most successfully. Simple changes to capture more detail during pattern analysis can increase accuracy for the more variable behavior patterns. The methods developed here show promise for extracting meaningful and useful information about occupant energy behavior from the stores of existing end-use data.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Emery, A. & Gartland, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

You Won`t Find These Leaks with a Blower Door: The Latest in "Leaking Electricity" in Homes

Description: Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Rainer, L.; Greenberg, S. & Meier, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and application of a high-speed, high-resolution data acquisition system for monitoring power at the service entrance to buildings

Description: A non-intrusive load monitoring system (NILMS) was developed and tested to determine its capabilities and examine ways that the system can supplement the understanding of how energy is used in a building. The investigation of the system as a method for obtaining short-term building energy use and demand data faster, as less cost, with less complexity, and less intrusively than from conventional submetering is described in this report. Data acquisition hardware and software, a power transducer, and current transformers were assembled into a system that could be used to sample the instantaneous real and reactive power coming into a building. The system was used to collect power profiles at a commercial and a residential building. The NILMS can sample power at low speeds (one sample per hour or less) and at speeds exceeding 100 Hz. Large changes in building power such as those due to central heating and cooling systems, water heaters, or banks of lights can easily be discriminated from total building power profiles collected by the system. Smaller loads, less than 1 or 2 kW, can be resolved when there is little ``noise`` in the power profile. Very small loads, less than 100 W, can be resolved in a residential application. Resolution becomes more difficult as larger and more frequent fluctuations occur. The ability of the system to easily collect valuable, short-term building power profiles, which permit individual loads to be determined (resolved), makes the system attractive for a number of applications. The system could prove very useful for measuring short-term energy use and demand, assisting building energy auditors in assessing building deficiencies, providing short-term performance data for validating engineering-based savings estimates and calibrating computer-based building performance models, and for validating, developing, and/or improving building and building system operating strategies.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Sharp, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verifying energy savings with minimal metered data: The Hunter heat pump analysis

Description: In November 1992, Hunter Army Air Field (AAF) completed the installation of 489 air-source heat pumps -- a new heat pump and air-handling unit for each residence. The air-source heat pumps replaced older, less efficient, air-conditioning systems, fuel oil-fired furnaces, and fan coil units. Hunter AAF originally contacted to upgrade the old family housing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with high efficiency air-conditioning systems and natural gas furnaces, but an alternative proposal and following energy studies indicated that heat pumps were a more life-cycle cost-effective alternative. Six months after the heat pumps were installed, Hunter`s energy bills appeared to be increasing, not decreasing as expected. In early 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory` (PNL) began an analysis to determine if there were any energy savings resulting from the heat pump installation as predicted by previous energy studies. The problem is that the HVAC systems are not specifically submetered to support verifying the resulting energy savings and, as is the case with most federal facilities, even the homes are not individually metered. Savings verification needed to be accomplished with die existing and available metered data. This data consisted primarily of monthly electric submeter readings from the two housing subdivision meters, historical fuel oil delivery records for family housing, and monthly base-wide electric bills. The objective of the study is to verify the change in energy consumption in family housing and, to the extent possible, identify how much of the change in consumption is attributable to the new HVAC system and how much is probably attributable to other factors, such as the weather.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Parker, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

Description: This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Wendt, Robert; Lundell, Clark & Lau, Tin Man
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes

Description: The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.
Date: April 19, 1999
Creator: Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L. & Wendt, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-efficiency design and inspection guides for affordable housing construction

Description: This paper focuses on the general methods used in guides developed for the energy efficient design and inspection of new and revitalized housing projects for military family housing. The methods and guides can also benefit the wider market of public and other housing. Inspections performed on military and public housing units were used to identify energy deficiencies. The most common problems found were related to disconnected and deteriorated forced air distribution duct work and poor system design resulting in significant air leakage. Design and inspection guides are summarized for new construction and revitalization projects. 7 refs., 7 figs.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Ternes, M.P.; Livengood, S.E. & Wendt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department