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Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13, 1995--December 12, 1995

Description: The main emphasis this quarter was on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Assimilation of data with the geostatistics was conducted to determine the specific well locations for the demonstration program. Reservoir characterization and performance information is also included.
Date: December 12, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity. Quarterly report, 1 October 1995--31 December 1995

Description: The objective of this project is to integrate advanced geoscience and reservoir engineering concepts with the goal of quantifying the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions as they relate to reservoir architecture and lithologic characterization. This interdisciplinary effort will integrate geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation. Technical progress is reported for: Geologic studies, single well wettability tracer test for Sulimar Queen Field; field operations; and reservoir modeling.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Buckley, J.S.; Weiss, W.W. & Ouenes, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], October 1--December 31, 1995

Description: The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory, as described by Doyle, O`Meara, and Witterholt (1991), consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The over all project consists of four inter disciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: (1) modeling depositional environments; (2) upscaling; (3) sweep efficiency; and (4) tracer testing. During this quarter, the main activities involved task 1, modeling depositional environments, for which progress is reported. This task aims at improving the investigators ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: O`Meara, D.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, September 13--December 12, 1996

Description: Eighteen 10-acre infill wells have been drilled and completed as part of the Field Demonstration phase of the project at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit (NRU). The fourteen producing wells are pumped-off and producing at stable rates. The four injection wells are completed and have been on injection for three to four weeks. Current Unit production is approximately 3,400 STBO/D, of which approximately 900 STBO/D is being produced from the 10-acre infill wells. A change in the Statement of Work has been approved so that additional 10-acre infill wells can be drilled and/or 20-acre producing wells can be converted to injection during the next quarter as budget constraints and rig availability allow. Technical progress is described for the quarter in many related areas: implementation of the field demonstration; reservoir characterization; reservoir management activities and performance analysis; reservoir simulation; and technology transfer.
Date: December 12, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micromechanics of failure in brittle geomaterials. Final technical report (for 7/1/1994 - 8/31/2000)

Description: The overall objective was to provide a fundamental understanding of brittle failure processes in porous and compact geomaterials. This information is central to energy-related programs such as oil and gas exploration/production, reservoir engineering, drilling technology, geothermal energy recovery, nuclear waste isolation, and environmental remediation. The effects of key parameters such as grain boundary structure and cementation, damage state, and load path on the deformation and failure model of brittle geomaterials are still largely unknown. The research methodology emphasized the integration of experimental rock mechanical testing, quantitative microscopy, and detailed analysis using fracture mechanics, continuum plasticity theory, and numerical methods. Significant progress was made in elucidating the micromechanics of brittle failure in compact crystalline rocks, as well as high-porosity siliciclastic and carbonate rocks. Substantial effort was expended toward applying a new quantitative three-dimensional imaging technique to geomaterials and for developing enhanced image analysis capabilities. The research is presented under the following topics: technique for imaging the 3-D pore structure of geomaterials; mechanics of compressive failure in sandstone; effect of water on compressive failure of sandstone; micromechanics of compressive failure: observation and model; and the brittle-ductile transition in porous carbonate rocks.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Wong, Teng-fong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix ...
Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Grigg, Reid B. & Svec, Robert K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

Description: The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Wood, James R. & Harrison, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The overall purpose of the proposed project is to improve secondary recovery performance of a marginal oil field through the use of an appropriate reservoir management plan. The selection of plan will be based on the detailed reservoir description using integrated approach. We expect that 2 to 5 % of original oil in place will be recovered using this method. This should extend the life of the reservoir by at least 10 years. The project is divided into two stages. In Stage I of the project, we selected part of the Glenn Pool field - Self Unit. We conducted cross bore hole tomography surveys and formation micro scanner logs through newly drilled well. By combining the state of the art data with conventional core and log data, we developed a detailed reservoir description based on integrated approach. After conducting extensive reservoir simulation studies, we evaluated alternate reservoir management strategies to improve the reservoir performance including drilling of a horizontal injection well. We observed that selective completion of many wells followed by an increase in the injection rate was the most feasible option to improve the performance of the Unit. This management plan is currently being implemented and the performance is being monitored. Stage 11 of the project will involve selection of part of the same reservoir (Berryhill Unit - Tract 7), development of reservoir description using only conventional data, simulation of flow performance using developed reservoir description, selection of an appropriate reservoir management plan, and implementation of the plan followed by monitoring of reservoir performance. By comparing the results of two budget periods, we will be able to evaluate the utility of collecting additional data using state-of-the-art technology. In addition, we will also be able to evaluate the application of optimum reservoir management plan in improving secondary recovery performance of ...
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Kelkar, B.G.; Liner, C. & Kerr, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington oil field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: This project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles, California. Advanced technologies to be employed include the development of 3-D geologic models, 3-D thermal reservoir well stimulation models, computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models, a detailed study of the geochemistry and rock-fluid interactions and studies of steam completion techniques.
Date: December 4, 1995
Creator: Hara, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on trust-region algorithms for nonlinear programming. Final technical report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1992

Description: Goal of the research was to develop and test effective, robust algorithms for general nonlinear programming (NLP) problems, particularly large or otherwise expensive NLP problems. We discuss the research conducted over the 3-year period Jan. 1990-Dec. 1992. We also describe current and future directions of our research.
Date: December 19, 1995
Creator: Dennis, J. E., Jr. & Tapia, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced fracture modeling in the Uinta Basin (Utah) for optimized primary and secondary recovery. Final report, September 1998

Description: The completed study focused on an area fracture-controlled highly unpredictable, fracture-controlled production near the Duchesne Fault Zone, Uinta Basin, in northeastern Utah. Production is seriously influenced by numerous high-angle faults and associated fractures--represented at the surface by a set of parallel, N80{degree}W-trending lineaments, and intricate fracture patterns in outcrop. Specific production is erratic and secondary recovery design is difficult because well-specific structural characterization and local fracture patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, numerical models to simulate fluid flow in fractured reservoirs were either overly simplistic (did not adequately account for mechanical contrasts between matrix and fractures) or were extremely complex, requiring volumes of data typically not available to the operator. The contractors proposed implementing advanced geological, geomechanical and reservoir engineering methods to recognize and model the complex fracture networks exhibited at the surface and suggested in the shallow subsurface in the Duchesne Fault Zone. The intended methodology was to be developed in a data-limited environment, recognizing that operators in the basin will not have the financial resources or motivation to perform sophisticated and expensive reservoir engineering programs. User-friendly models for permeability, stress, and production using key geological and geophysical data, developed in this study can then be used to determine: economic placement of future operations, assessment of recoverable hydrocarbons, and forecasting of primary and secondary recovery.
Date: December 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A virtual company concept for reservoir management

Description: This paper describes how reservoir management problems were pursued with a virtual company concept via the Internet and World Wide Web. The focus of the paper is on the implementation of virtual asset management teams that were assembled with small independent oil companies. The paper highlights the mechanics of how the virtual team transferred data and interpretations, evaluated geological models of complex reservoirs, and used results of simulation studies to analyze various reservoir management strategies.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P. & Whitney, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. [Quarterly progress report], October 1--December 31, 1995

Description: The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be constructed for improved oil-field development in similar reservoirs world-wide. The geological and petrophysical properties of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone in east-central Utah will be quantitatively determined. Both new and existing data will be integrated into a three-dimensional representation of spatial variations in porosity, storativity, and tensorial rock permeability at a scale appropriate for inter-well to regional-scale reservoir simulation. Results could improve reservoir management through proper infill and extension drilling strategies, reduction of economic risks, increased recovery from existing oil fields, and more reliable reserve calculations. Technical progress this quarter is divided into regional stratigraphy, case studies, and technology transfer activities. The Kf-2 contains more and cleaner sand, indicating a more wave-modified environment of deposition. The regional stratigraphy of the Ferron Sandstone outcrop belt from Last Chance Creek to Ferron Creek was described and interpreted. Photomosaics and a database of existing surface and subsurface data are being used to determine the extent and depositional environment of each parasequence, and the nature of the contacts with adjacent rocks or flow units. Detailed geological and petrophysical characterization of the primary reservoir lithofacies typically found in a fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir, is continuing at selected case-study areas. Interpretations of lithofacies, bounding surfaces, and other geologic information are being combined with permeability measurements from closely spaced traverses and from drill-hole cores (described this quarter).
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Allison, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The history of HDR research and development

Description: An energy source rivaling the sun exists in the form of the heat emanating from the interior of the earth. Although limited quantities of this geothermal energy are produced today by bringing natural hot fluids to the surface, most of the earth`s heat is trapped in hot dry rock (HDR). The application of hydraulic fracturing technology to tap this vast HDR resource was pioneered by Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in 1970. Since that time, engineered geothermal reservoirs have been constructed and operated at numerous locations around the world. Major work at the US HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, and at the British HDR site in Cornwall, UK, has been completed, but advanced HDR field work continues at two sites on the island of Honshu in Japan and at Soultz in northeastern France. In addition, plans are currently being completed for the construction of an HDR system on the continent of Australia. Over the past three decades the worldwide research and development effort has taken HDR from its early conceptual stage to its present state as a demonstrated technology that is on the verge of becoming commercially feasible. Extended flow tests in the United States, Japan, and Europe have proven that sustained operation of HDR reservoirs is possible. In support of these field tests, an international body of scientists and engineers have pursued a variety of innovative approaches for assessing HDR resources, constructing and characterizing engineered geothermal reservoirs, and operating HDR systems. Taken together, these developments form a strong base upon which to build the practical HDR systems that will provide clean energy for the world in the 21st century.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Duchane, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly progress review No. 85, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: This documents presents progress on enhanced oil recovery programs and reservoir characterization programs. Information is presented on contract numbers, awards, investigators, and project managers.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Godley, P. & Waisley, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1997

Description: The work reported herein covers select tasks in Budget Phase 2. The principle Task in Budget Phase 2 included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of many of the Field Demonstration tasks during the last report period enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual CO{sub 2} injection commencing in mid-July, 1996. This report summarizes activities incurred following initial project start-up, towards the goal of optimizing project performance. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreement (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Dollens, K.B.; Harpole, K.J.; Durrett, E.G. & Bles, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

Description: The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Schechter, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

Description: The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R. & Robinson, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Quarterly report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

Description: The overall purpose of the proposed project is to improve secondary recovery performance of a marginal oil field through the use of an appropriate reservoir management plan. The selection of plan will be based on the detailed reservoir description using an integrated approach. We expect that 2 to 5% of the original oil in place will be recovered using this method. This should extend the life of the reservoir by at least 10 years. The project is divided into two stages. In Stage I of the project, we selected part of the Glenn Pool field - Self Unit. We conducted cross bore hole tomography surveys and formation micro scanner logs through a newly drilled well. By combining the state-of-the-art data with conventional core and log data, we developed a detailed reservoir description based on an integrated approach. After conducting extensive reservoir simulation studies, we evaluated alternate reservoir management strategies to improve the reservoir performance including drilling of a horizontal injection well. We observed that selective completion of many wells followed by an increase in the injection rate was the most feasible option to improve the performance of the Self Unit. This management plan is currently being implemented and the performance is being monitored.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Kelkar, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated reservoir management in the Carpinteria Offshore Field

Description: The Carpinteria Offshore Field is located near Santa Barbara, California. The State of California owns the portion of the field nearest the coast, and the US Federal Government the portion of the field that lies beyond a statutory three-mile coastal water limit. This mature reservoir has yielded more than 100 million barrels of oil from five platforms in its 30 years of production. The US Department of Energy`s Los Alamos National Laboratory (managed by the University of California) has joined with the State Lands Commission of California, the US Department of Interior`s Minerals Management Service, and the independent operator of the field, Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc., in a unique collaboration to redevelop the field. The reservoir management strategy for the Carpinteria Field relies on a long-term investment in simulation tools and expertise. These technologies and expertise are available to all project participants through a virtual enterprise business model.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Whitney, E. M.; Pawar, R. J. & Kendall, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

Description: This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Summary of project accomplishments; Final report, September 30, 1998

Description: Major accomplishments of this project occurred in three primary categories: (1) fractured reservoir location and characteristics prediction for exploration and production planning; (2) implications of geologic data analysis and synthesis for exploration and development programs; and (3) fractured reservoir production modeling. The results in each category will be discussed in turn. Seven detailed reports have been processed separately.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Ortoleva, P.J.; Sundberg, K.R. & Hoak, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report, February 18, 1992--December 31, 1995

Description: The overall objective of this research was to assist in the recovery of this non-contacted oil from known reservoirs on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. This project proceeded under three broad phases: analysis, supporting research, and technology transfer. This final report has been organized into a description of the overall work plan of this project and five volumes. Because of the wide variation and complex coverage of several topics and disciplines, each volume contains its own table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, abstract, executive summary, introduction, subject sections or chapters, acknowledgements, bibliographies, index and appendices.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Schenewerk, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, June 13--September 12, 1997

Description: The eighteen 10-acre infill wells which were drilled as part of the field demonstration portion of the project are all currently in service with no operational problems. These wells consist of fourteen producing wells and four injection wells. The producing wells are currently producing a total of approximately 500 bopd, down from a peak rate of 900 bopd. Unit production is currently averaging approximately 2,800 bopd, 12,000 bwpd and 17,000 bwipd. The paper describes progress on core analysis, gas-oil/oil-gas permeability tests, water-oil/oil-water permeability tests, water-gas permeability tests, electrical resistivity measurements, capillary pressure tests, reservoir surveillance, and paleontologic analysis.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department