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Program Plan for Renewable Energy generation of electricity. Response to Section 2111 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

Description: A 5-Year Program Plan for providing cost-effective options for generating electricity from renewable energy sources is presented by the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The document covers the Utility-Sector situation, scope of the program, specific generating technologies, and implementation of the program plan.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative

Description: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.
Date: May 9, 1999
Creator: Herig, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

Description: This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.
Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Polen, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable Energy Deployment in the Federal Sector

Description: To reduce energy costs and help protect the environment, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies in becoming more energy efficient and using more renewable energy. FEMP's renewable energy program has identified three technology pathways to this goal: (1) purchasing and installing cost-effective renewable energy technologies at Federal sites; (2) purchasing a portion of Federal facilities' electricity from renewable power sources; and (3) incorporating the principles of low-energy design in new construction. To support these pathways, FEMP has also identified three overarching actions that need to be taken: (1) partnering with others to develop clear messages about renewable energy that resonate with the public; (2) coordinating agency programs to leverage resources and emphasize renewables; and (3) securing commitments and support from Federal leadership. This paper describes FEMP's progress in each pathway and supporting action and includes examples of recent Federal projects.
Date: March 24, 1999
Creator: Carlisle, N.; Eiffert, P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) & Crawley, A. S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovation, renewable energy, and state investment: Case studies of leading clean energy funds

Description: Over the last several years, many U.S. states have established clean energy funds to help support the growth of renewable energy markets. Most often funded by system-benefits charges (SBC), the 15 states that have established such funds are slated to collect nearly $3.5 billion from 1998 to 2012 for renewable energy investments. These clean energy funds are expected to have a sizable impact on the energy future of the states in which the funds are being collected and used. For many of the organizations tapped to administer these funds, however, this is a relatively new role that presents the challenge of using public funds in the most effective and innovative fashion possible. Fortunately, each state is not alone in its efforts; many other U.S. states and a number of countries are undertaking similar efforts. Early lessons are beginning to be learned by clean energy funds about how to effectively target public funds towards creating and building renewable energy markets. A number of innovative programs have already been developed that show significant leadership by U.S. states in supporting renewable energy. It is important that clean energy fund administrators learn from this emerging experience.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Milford, Lewis; Porter, Kevin & Clark, Roger
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable Energy Research & Development

Description: The Jicarilla Apache Nation is in Rio Arriba County in North Central New Mexico. The photovoltaic project was installed at the Dulce High School in the town of Dulce. Dulce is in the most northern part of the reservation near the New Mexico/Colorado boundary and can be reached from the New Mexico State Capitol in Santa Fe, hence to the town of Chama along U.S. Highway 84 to the junction of U.S. Highway 64. Dulce is about 12 miles west of the junction along U.S. Highway 64. Dulce community is in the mountainous part of the Nation with a population of about 4000. No industry exists in the community, however, a few commercial sites do exist such as a motel, restaurants, gas stations, food and liquor stores.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Tribe, Jicarilla Apache
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

Description: This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Clifton, Neil; Whitman, Eliza Jane & Zughbi, Jamal A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research opportunities in photochemical sciences

Description: The workshop entitled {open_quotes}Research Opportunities in Photochemical Sciences{close_quotes} was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research (ER), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado was requested by ER to host the workshop. It was held February 5-8, 1996 at the Estes Park Conference Center, Estes Park, CO, and attended by about 115 leading scientists and engineers from the U.S., Japan, and Europe; program managers for the DOE ER and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs also attended. The purpose of the workshop was to bridge the communication gap between the practioneers and supporters of basic research in photochemical science and the practioneers and supporters of applied research and development in technologies related to photochemical science. For the purposes of the workshop the definition of the term {open_quotes}photochemical science{close_quotes} was broadened to include homogeneous photochemistry, heterogeneous photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, photobiology (for example, the light-driven processes of biological photosynthesis and proton pumping), artificial photosynthesis, solid state photochemistry, and solar photochemistry. The technologies under development through DOE support that are most closely related to photochemical science, as defined above, are the renewable energy technologies of photovoltaics, biofuels, hydrogen energy, carbon dioxide reduction and utilization, and photocatalysis for environmental cleanup of water and air. Individual papers were processed separately for the United states Department of Energy databases.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

Description: The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Wiser, R. & Pickle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Program

Description: The development of technologically-advanced wind turbines continues to be a high priority of the US wind industry. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a range of projects that assist the wind industry to design, develop, and test new wind turbines. The overall goal is to develop turbines that can compete with conventional electric generation with a cost of energy (COE) of 5 cents/kWh at 5.8 m/s (13 mph sites) by the mid-1990s and with a cost of energy of 4 cents/kWh or less at 5.8 m/s sites by the year 2000. These goals will be supported through the DOE Turbine Development Program. The Turbine Development Program uses a two-path approach. The first path assists US industry to develop and integrate innovative technologies into utility-grade wind turbines for the near-term (mid-1990s). The second path assists industry to develop a new generation of turbines for the year 2000. This paper describes present and planned projects under the Turbine Development Program.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Link, H.; Laxson, A.; Smith, B. & Goldman, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

Description: This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. It is intended (1) to help analysts determine the appropriate approach or type of analysis and the appropriate level of detail and (2) to assist EE analysts in completing consistent analyses using standard assumptions and bases, when appropriate. Included are analytical techniques that are commonly required for the economic analysis of EE technologies and projects. The manual consists of six sections: Introduction, Fundamentals, Selection Criteria Guide, Economic Measures, Special Considerations for Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems, and References. A glossary and eight appendices are also included. Each section has a brief introductory statement, a presentation of necessary formulae, a discussion, and when appropriate, examples and descriptions of data and data availability. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a judgment or a decision. The most complete analysis of an investment in a technology or a project requires the analysis of each year of the life of the investment, taking into account relevant direct costs, indirect and overhead costs, taxes, and returns on investment, plus any externalities, such as environmental impacts, that are relevant to the decision to be made. However, it is important to consider the purpose and scope of a particular analysis at the outset because this will prescribe the course to follow. The perspective of the analysis is important, often dictating the approach to be used. Also, the ultimate use of the results of an analysis will influence the level of detail undertaken. The decision-making criteria of the potential investor must also be considered.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Short, W.; Packey, D.J. & Holt, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building-integrated photovoltaics: A case study

Description: In 1992, Kiss Cathcart Anders Architects performed a study for NREL on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) issues as seen from the perspective of the building community. In general, the purpose of the study was to list major issues and potential applications; by it`s nature it asked more questions than it answered. This second phase study was to produce quantitative data on the performance of specific BIPV systems. Only roof systems are evaluated. The energy performance, construction cost and simple payback for five different BIPV roof options are evaluated in six different locations: Oakland, New York, Miami, Phoenix, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The roof options evaluated include the following: single-glazed PV roof using glass-substrate PVs; double-glazed PV roof with insulating PV modules; ballasted roof-mounted system; sawtooth light monitor roof with indirect north daylighting; sawtooth roof with north light and active heat recovery.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J. & Raman, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1998 federal energy and water management award winners

Description: Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal Government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. In these fiscally-modest times, pursuing sound energy management programs can present additional challenges for energy and facility managers. The correct path to take is not always the easiest. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1998 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1998 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $222 million and 10.5 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. Through their dedication, hard work, ingenuity, and success, the award winners have also inspired others to increase their own efforts to save energy and water and to more aggressively pursue the use of renewable energy sources. The Federal Energy and Water Management Awards recognize the winners` contributions and ability to inspire others to take action.
Date: October 28, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission pricing and renewables: Issues, options, and recommendations

Description: Open access to the transmission system, if provided at reasonable costs, should open new electricity markets for high-quality renewable resources that are located far from load centers. Several factors will affect the cost of transmission service, including the type of transmission pricing system implemented and the specific attributes of renewable energy. One crucial variable in the transmission cost equation is a generator`s capacity factor. This factor is important for intermittent renewables such as wind and solar, because it can increase transmission costs several fold due to the traditional use of take-or-pay, capacity-based transmission access charges. This report argues that such a charge is demonstrably unfair to renewable generators. It puts them at an economic disadvantage that will lead to an undersupply of renewable energy compared with the least-cost mix of generation technologies. The authors argue that congestion charges must first be separated from the access charges that cover the fixed cost of the network before one can design an efficient tariff. They then show that, in a competitive market with a separate charge for congestion, a take-or-pay capacity-based access charge used to cover system fixed costs cannot be justified on the basis of peak-load pricing. An energy-based access charge, on the other hand, is fair to intermittent generators as well as to the usual spectrum of peak and base-load technologies. This report also reviews other specific characteristics of renewables that can affect the cost of transmission, and evaluates the potential impact on renewables of several transmission pricing schemes, including postage-stamp rates, megawatt-mile pricing, congestion pricing, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s {open_quotes}point-to-point{close_quotes} transmission tariffs.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Stoft, S.; Webber, C. & Wiser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

Description: The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% ...
Date: November 8, 1998
Creator: Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

Description: Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.
Date: June 9, 1997
Creator: Mills, E. & Knoepfel, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department