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Ion Replacement Program Annual Report: 1993

Description: Annual report of the Ion Replacement Electrorefining Program at Aronne National Laboratory describing their research and activities. There are three key accomplishments highlighted for the year: (1) identification of a suitable sodium(beta){double_prime}-alumina/molten salt electrolyte system that functions reproducibly at 723 K, (2) actual separation of dysprosium and lanthanum in experiments, and (3) the identification of a metal alloy, Li{sub x}Sb, as an alternative ion replacement electrode.
Date: July 1993
Creator: Tomczuk, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum--Industry of the Future

Description: This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Petroleum Industry of The Future, a partnership between the Department of Energy and the petroleum refining industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.
Date: January 23, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the Benefits of Government-Sponsored Energy R&D: Synthesis of Conference Discussions

Description: In 2001, a National Research Council (NRC) committee conducted a retrospective study of the benefits of some of the energy efficiency and fossil energy programs in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As part of its study, the NRC committee developed a methodological framework for estimating these benefits. Following the NRC report, a conference was organized by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to discuss ways of adapting and refining the NRC framework for possible use by DOE offices to help plan and manage their R&D. This report is a synthesis of the discussions at the conference.
Date: November 14, 2003
Creator: Lee, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-validated Variance-based Methods for Sensitivity Analysis of Model Outputs

Description: Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) has the advantage over local sensitivity analysis in that GSA does not require strong model assumptions such as linearity or monotonicity. As a result, GSA methods such as those based on variance decomposition are well-suited to multi-physics models, which are often plagued by large nonlinearities. However, as with many other sampling-based methods, inadequate sample size can badly pollute the result accuracies. A natural remedy is to adaptively increase the sample size until sufficient accuracy is obtained. This paper proposes an iterative methodology comprising mechanisms for guiding sample size selection and self-assessing result accuracy. The elegant features in the the proposed methodology are the adaptive refinement strategies for stratified designs. We first apply this iterative methodology to the design of a self-validated first-order sensitivity analysis algorithm. We also extend this methodology to design a self-validated second-order sensitivity analysis algorithm based on refining replicated orthogonal array designs. Several numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods.
Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Tong, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stochastic Generator of Chemical Structure. 3. Reaction Network Generation

Description: A new method to generate chemical reaction network is proposed. The particularity of the method is that network generation and mechanism reduction are performed simultaneously using sampling techniques. Our method is tested for hydrocarbon thermal cracking. Results and theoretical arguments demonstrate that our method scales in polynomial time while other deterministic network generator scale in exponential time. This finding offers the possibility to investigate complex reacting systems such as those studied in petroleum refining and combustion.
Date: July 15, 2000
Creator: FAULON,JEAN-LOUP & SAULT,ALLEN G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

Description: Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the ...
Date: August 12, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

Description: This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Preliminary Operation of the Gas-Combustion Oil-Shale Pilot Retort

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over operations of an oil-shale pilot plant. As stated in the summary, "this report describes the step-by-step development of the Gas-Combustion retort and the various modifications and means of air admission used to obtain a workable unit" (p. 2). This report includes tables, graphs, and illustrations.
Date: November 1955
Creator: Matzick, Arthur; Ruark, J. R. & Putman, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

Description: A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.
Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Megy, Dr. Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

Description: This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Compere, A. L. & Griffith, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. MOPEX DATA SET

Description: A key step in applying land surface parameterization schemes is to estimate model parameters that vary spatially and are unique to each computational element. Improved methods for parameter estimation (especially for parameters important to runoff response) are needed and require data from a wide range of climate regimes throughout the world. Accordingly, the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP) endorsed the concept of an international Model Parameter Estimation Project (MOPEX) at its Toronto meeting, August 1996. Phase I of MOPEX was funded by NOAA in FY 1997, Phase II in FY 2000 and Phase III in FY 2003. MOPEX was adopted as projects of the IAHS/WMO Committee on GEWEX and of the WMO Commission on Hydrology (CHy) and now is a contributor to the Combine Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). In 2004 MOPEX became a Working Group of the IAHS Prediction for Ungaged Basins (PUB) Initiative. MOPEX also is expected to contribute to the work of the Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX) (Franz et al, 2005). The primary goal of MOPEX is to develop techniques for the a priori estimation of the parameters used in land surface parameterization schemes of atmospheric models and in hydrologic models. A major early effort of MOPEX has been to assemble a large number of high quality historical hydrometeorological and river basin characteristics data sets for a wide range of river basins (500-10,000 km{sup 2}) throughout the world. MOPEX data sets are available via the Internet (ftp://hydrology.nws.noaa.gov). This paper documents the development of data sets for U.S. river basins. Several highly successful parameter estimation workshops have been organized by MOPEX. The first was held as part of the IAHS meeting in Birmingham, England in July, 1999. The second workshop was hosted April, 2002 in Tucson, AZ by SAHRA/University of Arizona. The ...
Date: May 8, 2006
Creator: Schaake, J; Cong, S & Duan, Q
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of U.S. Energy Wave Resources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-328

Description: In terms of extractable wave energy resource for our preliminary assessment, the EPRI/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assumed that 15% of the available resource could be extracted based on societal constraints of a 30% coverage of the coastline with a 50% efficient wave energy absorbing device. EPRI recognizes that much work needs to be done to better define the extractable resource and we have outlined a comprehensive approach to doing this in our proposed scope of work, along with specific steps for refining our estimate of the available wave energy resources.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Scott, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS

Description: Comprehensive test ban monitoring in terms of location and discrimination has progressed significantly in recent years. However, the characterization of sources and the estimation of low yields remains a particular challenge. As the recent Korean shot demonstrated, we can probably expect to have a small set of teleseismic, far-regional and high-frequency regional data to analyze in estimating the yield of an event. Since stacking helps to bring signals out of the noise, it becomes useful to conduct comparable analyses on neighboring events, earthquakes in this case. If these auxiliary events have accurate moments and source descriptions, we have a means of directly comparing effective source strengths. Although we will rely on modeling codes, 1D, 2D, and 3D, we will also apply a broadband calibration procedure to use longer periods (P>5s) waveform data to calibrate short-period (P between .5 to 2 Hz) and high-frequency (P between 2 to 10 Hz) as path specify station corrections from well-known regional sources. We have expanded our basic Cut-and-Paste (CAP) methodology to include not only timing shifts but also amplitude (f) corrections at recording sites. The name of this method was derived from source inversions that allow timing shifts between 'waveform segments' (or cutting the seismogram up and re-assembling) to correct for crustal variation. For convenience, we will refer to these f-dependent refinements as CAP+ for (SP) and CAP++ for still higher frequency. These methods allow the retrieval of source parameters using only P-waveforms where radiation patterns are obvious as demonstrated in this report and are well suited for explosion P-wave data. The method is easily extended to all distances because it uses Green's function although there may be some changes required in t* to adjust for offsets between local vs. teleseismic distances. In short, we use a mixture of model-dependent and empirical corrections to ...
Date: July 16, 2007
Creator: Helmberger, D; Tromp, J & Rodgers, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department