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Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

Description: The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.
Date: January 14, 2009
Creator: Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

Description: A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DVD Based Integrated Electronic Pulser

Description: The DVD based integrated pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument. DVD technology has matured to the mass consumer level and has found widespread acceptance in many scientific, industrial, and consumers sectors. Coupling the removable media and relatively large data capacity with a simple electronic readout allows this device to be easy to build, export and authenticate. Since there are few parts and the heart of the device is a mass consumer item the duplication cost is very low.
Date: March 30, 2004
Creator: Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Morris, Scott J.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Rick M. & Robinson, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEMS sensors and wireless telemetry for distributed systems

Description: Selectively coated cantilevers are being developed at ORNL for chemical and biological sensing. The sensitivity can exceed that of other electro-mechanical devices as parts-per-trillion detection can be demonstrated for certain species. The authors are now proceeding to develop systems that employ electrically readable microcantilevers in a standard MEMS process and standard CMOS processes. One of their primary areas of interest is chemical sensing for environmental applications. Towards this end, they are presently developing electronic readout of a mercury-sensitive coated cantilever. In order to field arrays of distributed sensors, a wireless network for data reporting is needed. For this, the authors are developing on-chip spread-spectrum encoding and modulation circuitry to improve the robustness and security of sensor data in typical interference- and multipath-impaired environments. They have also provided for a selection of distinct spreading codes to serve groups of sensors in a common environment by the application of code-division multiple-access techniques. Most of the RF circuitry they have designed and fabricated in 0.5 {micro}m CMOS has been tested and verified operational to above 1 GHz. The initial intended operation is for use in the 915 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band. This paper presents measured data on the microcantilever-based mercury detector. They also present design data and measurements of the RF telemetry chip.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Britton, C.L. Jr.; Warmack, R.J. & Smith, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of Front-End Readout System for PHENIX RICH

Description: A front-end electronics system has been developed for the Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A high speed custom back-plane with source synchronous bus architecture, a full custom analog ASIC, and board modules with FPGA's and CPLD's were developed for high performance real time data acquisition. The transfer rate of the back-lane has reached 640 MB/s with 128 bits data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 {micro}s per event. The design specifications and test results of the system are presented in this paper.
Date: November 15, 1999
Creator: Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.; Nishimura, S.; Shigaki, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Hibino, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of hybrid photodiode irradiation by 200 MeV protons

Description: Hybrid Photodiodes (HPD, [1]) will be used as the photodetector for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) readout [2]. The HPDs are required to operate in a high radiation environment, where the HCAL detector will receive a total ionizing dose of about 330 rads and a fluence of 4 x 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} over a 10 year running period [3]. Effects of HPD irradiation by low energy neutrons were studied and reported previously [1]. In these studies, high energy protons are used to study possible effects of single event burnout [4], since high energy protons are more likely to induce large energy transfer within the HPD silicon. The HPDs were irradiated by 200 MeV protons at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility [IUCF, 5]. The results of the study are presented.
Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Baumbaugh, A.; Freeman, J.; Elias, J.; Los, S.; Mokhov, N.; Rivetta, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FPIX2: A radiation-hard pixel readout chip for BTeV

Description: A radiation-hard pixel readout chip, FPIX2, is being developed at Fermilab for the recently approved BTeV experiment. Although designed for BTeV, this chip should also be appropriate for use by CDF and DZero. A short review of this development effort is presented. Particular attention is given to the circuit redesign which was made necessary by the decision to implement FPIX2 using a standard deep-submicron CMOS process rather than an explicitly radiation-hard CMOS technology, as originally planned. The results of initial tests of prototype 0.25{micro} CMOS devices are presented, as are plans for the balance of the development effort.
Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: al., David C. Christian et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high density pixel multichip module at Fermilab

Description: At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.
Date: September 11, 2001
Creator: al., Sergio Zimmermann et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Point-spread function in depleted and partially depleted CCDs

Description: The point spread function obtainable in an astronomical instrument using CCD readout is limited by a number of factors, among them the lateral diffusion of charge before it is collected in the potential wells. They study this problem both theoretically and experimentally, with emphasis on the thick CCDs on high-resistivity n-type substrates being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Date: October 13, 1999
Creator: Groom, D.E.; Eberhard, P.H.; Holland, S.E.; Levi, M.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Perlmutter, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequential read-out architecture for multi-channel SQUID systems

Description: The authors describe a novel multi-channel sequential SQUID read-out technique that requires fewer wires than conventional units and also simplifies the electronics significantly. They designed and experimentally tested the sequential read-out electronics with up to 8 channels using LTS 8x8 mm{sup 2} magnetometers with about 3fT/{radical}Hz field resolution. They have investigated noise performance, amplitude-frequency characteristics, and cross-talk of the sequential read-out electronics for 2, 4, and 8 channels. They observed field resolution better than 4fT/{radical}Hz, 6fT/{radical}Hz, and 9fT/{radical}Hz for 2-, 4-, and 8-channel versions, respectively. They observed 10 kHz frequency bandwidth for the 8-channel version using 200 kHz modulation frequency. Cross-talk better than {minus}90dB was measured for this system. A single-channel simulation was used to estimate the field resolution for systems with up to 128 channels. They found that the expected field resolution can be better than 15fT/{radical}Hz, 20fT/{radical}Hz, and 30fT/{radical}Hz for 32-, 64-, and 128-channel systems, respectively, with the sequential read-out technique.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Matlashov, A.; Kraus, R.; Espy, M.; Ruminer, P.; Atencio, L. & Garachtchenko, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

Description: Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APD detector electronics for the NSTX Thomson scattering system

Description: An electronics system has been installed and tested for the readout of APD detectors for the NSTX Thomson scattering system. Similar to previous designs, it features preamps with a fast and a slow output. The fast output uses pulse shaping to optimize sensitivity for the 8 nsec scattered light pulse while rejecting noise in the intrinsic plasma background. A low readout noise of {approximately}25 photoelectrons is achieved at an APD gain of 75. The design incorporates a number of features to provide flexibility for various modes of calibration.
Date: August 7, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Long, D.L. & Renda, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of a readout architecture for pixel detectors

Description: This paper analyzes in detail some theoretical aspects in the modeling of a readout architecture for pixel detectors. In fact, these problems are common to the design of data acquisition systems and other processes containing buffers and where the input and output signals can be expressed by probability density functions. It is the purpose of this paper to point out that the same type of analysis can be extended to other systems with the benefit of saving time in long Montecarlo simulations and prototype design. The example case in which this paper is based on is the readout architecture of a column-based pixel detector amplifier and discriminator chip containing more than 3000 pixels of 50µ x 400µ. Several readout strategies are compared searching for an optimal design, which minimizes data loss and maximizes throughput. In particular, the probability of loosing pixel hits by overflowing the readout system is minimized studying the behavior of the stochastic Marcov process. Also, the communication channel bandwidths and local buffering are optimized.
Date: October 8, 1999
Creator: Cancelo, Gustavo I. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling and simulation of a readout architecture for pixel detectors

Description: This paper analyzes in detail some theoretical aspects in the modeling of a proposed readout architecture for pixel detectors. The readout architecture is designed for a chip containing about 3000 pixels of 50{micro}m x 400{micro}m. The main objective is to get the maximum pixel hit readout with the minimum probability of hit loss. The readout architecture is modeled as a Marcov stochastic process. The pixel front-end and readout are simulated and tested with Montecarlo data. The simulations allow to optimize the communication channel bandwidths and local buffering. The probability of system overflow of the simulated system is confronted with the one obtained by modeling.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Zimmermann, Gustavo Cancelo and Sergio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charge integrator and encoder ASIC for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors

Description: A charge integrator and encoder ASIC is being developed at Fermilab for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors. The chip provides eight nonoverlapping ranges and is pipelined for deadtimeless operation. It is intended to be used with an FADC to digitize hybrid photodiode current pulses at 40 MHz. For each clock period, one range is selected depending on the signal magnitude, and the output of that range is fed to the FADC to form the mantissa. The selected range is encoded and output as a 3-bit digital exponent. Previous versions of this device have been designed for use with photomultipliers which can have high gain. Hybrid photodiodes have gains of only a few thousand so that a new version of the chip is needed which includes a current-mode preamplifier. The principle of the device is described and early results from a demonstrator project are presented.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: al., A. Baumbaugh et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a pixel readout chip for BTeV

Description: A description is given of the R&D program underway at Fermilab to develop a pixel readout ASIC appropriate for use at the Tevatron collider. Results are presentetd frOm tests performed on the first prototype pixel readout chip deigned at Fermilab, and a new readout architecture is described.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: al., D.C. Christian et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The MASDA-X chip - A new multichannel ASIC for readout of pixelated amorphous silicon arrays

Description: The MASDA-X chip is designed specifically for reading out large amorphous silicon pixel arrays used in medical imaging research. Instrumenting these arrays requires a set of digital row address- ing chips to sequentially select the pixel rows for readout, and a set of column readout chips to collect and process the analog charge transferred to each column by the selected pixels. A 32 channel column readout chip, MASDA-R, has previously been designed and successfully imple- mented by Fermilab and the University of Michigan. However, new arrays require an updated readout chip design with much tighter input channel pitch for direct mating to arrays. A new 128 channel chip, MASDA-X, has been designed at Fermilab. This chip incorporates performance improvements along with tighter channel pitch. MASDA-R was designed in the H. P. 0.8 micron process, which will no longer be available. Therefore, MASDA-X has been designed in the H. P. 0.5 micron 3.3V process.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Zimmerman, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

Description: It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Shekhar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.
Date: July 8, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department