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Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

Description: The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.
Date: January 14, 2009
Creator: Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

Description: A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DVD Based Integrated Electronic Pulser

Description: The DVD based integrated pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument. DVD technology has matured to the mass consumer level and has found widespread acceptance in many scientific, industrial, and consumers sectors. Coupling the removable media and relatively large data capacity with a simple electronic readout allows this device to be easy to build, export and authenticate. Since there are few parts and the heart of the device is a mass consumer item the duplication cost is very low.
Date: March 30, 2004
Creator: Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Morris, Scott J.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Rick M. & Robinson, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

Description: Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal to upgrade the MIPP data acquisition system

Description: The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and {approx} 20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost effective scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Baker, W.; Carey, D.; Johnstone, C.; Kostin, M.; Meyer, H.; Raja, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.
Date: October 29, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

Description: We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CDC and PIN-CMOS Developments for Large Optical Telescope.

Description: Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.
Date: April 3, 2006
Creator: Radeka, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future Trends in Microelectronics - Impact on Detector Readout.

Description: Mainstream CMOS is now a well-established detector readout technology. We review technology scaling trends and limits, the implementation of analog circuits in digital CMOS processes, and radiation resistance. Emphasis is placed on the growing importance of power dissipation in ultra-scaled technologies.
Date: April 3, 2006
Creator: O'connor, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SuperB Muon Detector Prototype

Description: The test objective is to optimize the muon identification in an experiment at a Super B Factory. To accomplish this, experimenters will study the muon identification capability of a detector with different iron configurations at different beam energies. The detector is a full scale prototype, composed of a stack of iron tiles. The segmentation of the iron allows the study of different configurations. Between the tiles, one or two extruded scintillator slabs can be inserted to test two different readout options; a Binary Readout and a Time Readout. In the Binary Readout option the two coordinates are given by the two orthogonal scintillator bars, and the spatial resolution is driven by the bar width. In the Time Readout option one coordinate is determined by the scintillator position and the other by the arrival time of the signal read with a TDC.
Date: November 1, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise in a Calorimeter Readout System Using Periodic Sampling

Description: Fourier transform analysis of the calorimeter noise problem gives quantitative results on (a) the time-height correlation, (b) the effect of background on optimal shaping and on the ENC, (c) sampling frequency requirements, and (d) the relation between sampling frequency and the required quantization error.
Date: February 26, 2009
Creator: Innes, Walter R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequential read-out architecture for multi-channel SQUID systems

Description: The authors describe a novel multi-channel sequential SQUID read-out technique that requires fewer wires than conventional units and also simplifies the electronics significantly. They designed and experimentally tested the sequential read-out electronics with up to 8 channels using LTS 8x8 mm{sup 2} magnetometers with about 3fT/{radical}Hz field resolution. They have investigated noise performance, amplitude-frequency characteristics, and cross-talk of the sequential read-out electronics for 2, 4, and 8 channels. They observed field resolution better than 4fT/{radical}Hz, 6fT/{radical}Hz, and 9fT/{radical}Hz for 2-, 4-, and 8-channel versions, respectively. They observed 10 kHz frequency bandwidth for the 8-channel version using 200 kHz modulation frequency. Cross-talk better than {minus}90dB was measured for this system. A single-channel simulation was used to estimate the field resolution for systems with up to 128 channels. They found that the expected field resolution can be better than 15fT/{radical}Hz, 20fT/{radical}Hz, and 30fT/{radical}Hz for 32-, 64-, and 128-channel systems, respectively, with the sequential read-out technique.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Matlashov, A.; Kraus, R.; Espy, M.; Ruminer, P.; Atencio, L. & Garachtchenko, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charge integrator and encoder ASIC for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors

Description: A charge integrator and encoder ASIC is being developed at Fermilab for readout of the CMS hadron calorimeter photodetectors. The chip provides eight nonoverlapping ranges and is pipelined for deadtimeless operation. It is intended to be used with an FADC to digitize hybrid photodiode current pulses at 40 MHz. For each clock period, one range is selected depending on the signal magnitude, and the output of that range is fed to the FADC to form the mantissa. The selected range is encoded and output as a 3-bit digital exponent. Previous versions of this device have been designed for use with photomultipliers which can have high gain. Hybrid photodiodes have gains of only a few thousand so that a new version of the chip is needed which includes a current-mode preamplifier. The principle of the device is described and early results from a demonstrator project are presented.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: al., A. Baumbaugh et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

Description: It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Shekhar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[SSC subsystem proposal for pre-shower and Shower Maximum Detectors]. Final report

Description: The basic purpose of this project was to devise low-cost photodetectors and arrays with large dynamic range capable of high-rate, radiation-resistant operation in multi-TeV hadron colliders. This project`s particular application was changed from the Superconducting Super Collider`s SDC detector to the Large Hadron Collider`s CMS after the Superconducting Super Collider project was cancelled. This report describes development and testing of photodetectors, and contains both a table summarizing the properties of different photodetectors and a paper on the performance of an avalanche photodiode photomultiplier tube tested at the CERN PS.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

Description: A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APD detector electronics for the NSTX Thomson scattering system

Description: An electronics system has been installed and tested for the readout of APD detectors for the NSTX Thomson scattering system. Similar to previous designs, it features preamps with a fast and a slow output. The fast output uses pulse shaping to optimize sensitivity for the 8 nsec scattered light pulse while rejecting noise in the intrinsic plasma background. A low readout noise of {approximately}25 photoelectrons is achieved at an APD gain of 75. The design incorporates a number of features to provide flexibility for various modes of calibration.
Date: August 7, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Long, D.L. & Renda, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high density pixel multichip module at Fermilab

Description: At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.
Date: September 11, 2001
Creator: al., Sergio Zimmermann et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Point-spread function in depleted and partially depleted CCDs

Description: The point spread function obtainable in an astronomical instrument using CCD readout is limited by a number of factors, among them the lateral diffusion of charge before it is collected in the potential wells. They study this problem both theoretically and experimentally, with emphasis on the thick CCDs on high-resistivity n-type substrates being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Date: October 13, 1999
Creator: Groom, D.E.; Eberhard, P.H.; Holland, S.E.; Levi, M.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Perlmutter, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department