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1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steamer cogeneration plant: design and cost study

Description: A conceptual design and cost study is presented for intermediate size high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for industrial energy applications performed by United Engineers and Constructors Inc., (UE and C) and The General Atomic Company (GAC). The study is part of a program at ORNL and has the objective to provide support in the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of a single unit 1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steam cycle cogeneration plant (referred to as the Steamer plant) for the production of industrial process energy. Inherent in the achievement of this objective, it was essential to perform a number of basic tasks such as the development of plant concept, capital cost estimate, project schedule and annual operation and maintenance (O and M) cost.
Date: August 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat. Interim design and cost status report, FY 1981

Description: Studies conductd on HTGR systems in FY 1980 were concluded in Application Study Reports to describe the preconceptual system designs to that point and discuss possible applications for three variations of the systems; the steam cycle/cogeneration plant, the higher temperature reformer plant, and the gas turbine concept. The HTGR-Reformer Application Study was conceived and directed to evaluate the HTGR-R with a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C as a near-term Lead Project and as a vehicle to long-term HTGR Program Objectives. The scope of this effort included evaluations of the HTGR-R technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-R markets, assesment of the economics of commercial HTGR-R plants, and the evaluation of the program scope and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-R technology through the completion of the Lead Project.
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process gas and steam-electric system parameters and advanced reformer concept guidelines for 850/sup 0/C IDC and 950/sup 0/C monolithic HTGR concepts

Description: The following is a description of the endeavors being pursued at ARSD as potential means of directly reducing the reformer plant and/or product costs. Three broad areas are currently under evaluation to achieve the cost reduction objectives and they include: (1) reduced reformer cost by simplifying the design, (2) improving thermochemical performance by enhanced heat transfer and catalyst activity, and (3) modification of process condition assumptions.
Date: January 21, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

Description: A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Barnes, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

Description: The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Pfremmer, R.D. & Openshaw, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and application for a high-temperature nuclear heat source

Description: The nuclear reactor designed for process heat has a power output of 842 MW(t), a core outlet temperature of 950/sup 0/C (1742/sup 0/F), and an intermediate helium loop to separate the heat source from the process heat exchangers. Steam-methane reforming is the reference process. As part of the development of a nuclear process heat system, a computer code, Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design, is being developed. This code models both the reactor plant and a steam reforming plant. When complete, the program will have the capability to calculate an overall mass and heat balance, size the plant components, and estimate the plant cost for a wide variety of independent variables.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Quade, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application

Description: The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/ (1000 x 10/sup 9/ bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Rao, R. & McMain, A.T. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

Description: This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat 950/sup 0/C DC vs. 850/sup 0/C IDC baseline plant cost comparison

Description: This evaluation compares two configurations of the 1170 MWt HTGR-R: the 950/sup 0/C direct cycle (DC) plant vs. the 850/sup 0/C indirect cycle (IDC) baseline plant. The subject evaluation is comprised of the following attachments: bases and assumptions for the cost and economic evaluations; capital cost and economic evaluation; major design differences; major technical issues; and drawings, as listed, for both plants. Drawing C-5001 is a composite plot plan which highlights the differences between the two plants.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

Description: This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: Geismar, Louisiana refinery/chemical complex application

Description: This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to an industrial complex at Geismar, Louisiana. This study compares the HTGR with coal and oil as process plant fuels. This study uses a previous broad energy alternative study by the Stone and Webster Corporation on refinery and chemical plant needs in the Gulf States Utilities service area. The HTGR-PS/C was developed by General Atomic (GA) specifically for industries which require both steam and electric energy. The GA 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PC/C design is particularly well suited to industrial applications and is expected to have excellent cost benefits over other energy sources.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: McMain, Jr., A. T. & Stanley, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GCRA review and appraisal of HTGR reactor-core-design program. [HTGR-SC, -R, -NHSDR]

Description: The reactor-core-design program has as its principal objective and responsibility the design and resolution of major technical issues for the reactor core and core components on a schedule consistent with the plant licensing and construction program. The task covered in this review includes three major design areas: core physics, core thermal and hydraulic performance fuel element design, and in-core fuel performance evaluation.
Date: September 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report. HTR Multiplex market assessment

Description: The HTR Multiplex utilizes the HTR as an energy source to produce multiple forms of energy. A specific type of multiplex utilizing a high temperature chemical heat pipe (CHP) is examined. Forecasts of the US electric energy markets and industrial heat markets are developed for the 1995-2010 time period. Costs of multiplexes in these markets are compared to costs of the conventional forecast mix of electric generation systems and to costs of fluidized bed combustors in the industrial heat market. The comparisons are by National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. The major finding of the study is that a large potential US market exists for the HTR Multiplex in two segments of the electric and industrial heat markets. It is concluded that the HTR Multiplex can provide peaking and mid-range electricity plus industrial heat for one and two-shift operations at costs approximately 50 percent lower than available alternatives. This market is estimated to be at least 300 GW/sub t/ (about 7 quads per year) in the 1995 to 2010 time period.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Leeth, G.G. & Meyer, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost comparison of very high temperature nuclear reactors for process heat applications

Description: In April 1974, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company and Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory to assess the available technology for producing process heat utilizing very high temperature nuclear reactors. General Electric and Westinghouse produced concepts for the entire nuclear system, including the balance of plant. The General Atomic assessment included only the nuclear reactor portion of the nuclear plant. United Engineers and Constructors Inc. (UE and C) was requested by the USAEC in November 1974 to prepare an economic comparison of the three conceptual plants. The comparison is divided into three tasks: (1) Develop a balance of plant conceptual design to be combined with the General Atomic concept as a basis for comparison, and estimate the cost of the General Atomic/UE and C concept in July 1974 dollars; (2) Normalize the overall plant costs for the General Atomic/UE and C, General Electric and Westinghouse concepts, compare the costs, and identify significant differences between the concepts; and (3) Estimate the operation and maintenance costs for the General Atomic/UE and C plant and compare with the other concepts. The results of these task studies are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1975
Creator: Crowley, J. H. & Newman, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of a small PWR for onsite industrial power

Description: Information on the use of a 300 to 400 MW(t) PWR type reactor for industrial applications is presented concerning the potential market, reliability considerations, reactor plant description, construction techniques, comparison between nuclear and fossil-fired process steam costs, alternative fossil-fired steam supplies, and industrial application.
Date: April 19, 1977
Creator: Klepper, O. H. & Smith, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

Description: A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000/sup 0/F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500/sup 0/F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600/sup 0/F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR.
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Spiewak, I.; Jones, J. E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P. L.; DeStefano, J. R. & Delene, J. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature helium loop for nuclear process heat studies

Description: An ERDA-sponsored study and evaluation program for the development of a very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) as a source of industrial process heat has been in progress at LASL since 1974. The reported conceptual design study of a high-temperature helium test facility is a part of the evaluation of experimental support requirements. The experimental design presented is that for a test of a full-scale bundle of an intermediate helium-to-helium heat exchanger. This experiment would require the maximum test capability expected for process equipment development testing in such facilities and therefore also provides appropriate specification information on facility equipment. The analysis presented indicates that a regenerative loop design employing a resistively heated graphite helium heater could accomplish the test objectives. The power requirements for this level of testing are within the capability of existing equipment at LASL. Other facility requirements, such as heat dump capacity, gas handling capability, and test cell configuration are also discussed.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Jiacoletti, R. J. & Pell, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modular pebble-bed reactor reforming plant design for process heat

Description: This report describes a preliminary design study of a Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor System Reforming (MPB-R) Plant. The system uses one pressure vessel for the reactor and a second pressure vessel for the components, i.e., reformer, steam generator and coolant circulator. The two vessels are connected by coaxial pipes in an arrangement known as the side-by-side (SBS). The goal of the study is to gain an understanding of this particular system and to identify any technical issues that must be resolved for its application to a modular reformer plant. The basic conditions for the MPB-R were selected in common with those of the current study of the MRS-R in-line prismatic fuel concept, specifically, the module core power of 250 MWt, average core power density of 4.1 w/cc, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with a /sup 235/U content of 20% homogeneously mixed with thorium, and a target burnup of 80,000 MWD/MT. Study results include the pebble-bed core neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Core characteristics for both the once-through-then-out (OTTO) and recirculation of fuel sphere refueling schemes were developed. The plant heat balance was calculated with 55% of core power allotted to the reformer.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Lutz, D.E.; Cowan, C.L.; Davis, C.R.; El Sheikh, K.A.; Hui, M.M.; Lipps, A.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of liquid fuels with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

Description: Recent events by OPEC have sharply increased interest in the United States for synfuels, and there are plans for several types of synfuel demonstration plants. The early timing of these plants will probably preclude their use of a nuclear heat source, but their operation will be a necessary step to the eventual integration of a nuclear heat source. The applications using coal liquids that are considered active candidates for nuclear process heat, the reference heat source design, and nuclear and non-nuclear methods for coal liquefaction are described.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L. & Green, L. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat applications with an HTGR

Description: An 842-MW(t) HTGR-process heat (HTGR-PH) design and several synfuels and energy transport processes to which it could be coupled are described. As in other HTGR designs, the HTGR-PH has its entire primary coolant system contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) which provides the necessary biological shielding and pressure containment. The high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. With a capability to produce hot helium in the secondary loop at 800/sup 0/C (1472/sup 0/F) with current designs and 900/sup 0/C (1652/sup 0/F) with advanced designs, a large number of process heat applications are potentially available. Studies have been performed for coal liquefaction and gasification using nuclear heat.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Quade, R.N. & Vrable, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

Description: The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.
Date: September 1980
Creator: Vrable, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of the HTGR for process heat applications

Description: This paper discusses a design study of an advanced 842-MW(t) HTGR with a reactor outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F), coupled with a chemical process whose product is hydrogen (or a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) generated by steam reforming of a light hydrocarbon mixture. This paper discusses the plant layout and design for the major components of the primary and secondary heat transfer systems. Typical parametric system study results illustrate the capability of a computer code developed to model the plant performance and economics.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Vrable, D.L. & Quade, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application-study report: alumina-plant application

Description: This report considers the HTGR-PS/C application to producing alumina from bauxite. For the size alumina plant considered, the 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C supplies 100% of the process steam and electrical power requirements and produces surplus electrical power and/or process steam, which can be used for other process users or electrical power production. Presently, the bauxite ore is reduced to alumina in plants geographically separated from the electrolysis plant. The electrolysis plants are located near economical electric power sources. However, with the integration of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C unit in a commercial alumina plant, the excess electric power available (approx. 233 MW(e)) could be used for alumina electrolysis.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Rao, R.; McMain, A. T., Jr. & Stanley, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of a small pressurized water reactor for industrial energy

Description: An evaluation of several recent ERDA/ORNL sponsored studies on the application of a small, 365 MW(t) pressurized water reactor for industrial energy is presented. Preliminary studies have investigated technical and reliability requirements; costs for nuclear and fossil based steam were compared, including consideration of economic inflation and financing methods. For base-load industrial steam production, small reactors appear economically attractive relative to coal fired boilers that use coal priced at $30/ton.
Date: October 4, 1977
Creator: Klepper, O. H.; Fuller, L. C. & Myers, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department