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THE METABOLSIM AND TOXICITY OF RADIUM-223 IN RATS

Description: This report covers studies of the excretion and retention of 'tracer' and toxic doses of the 11.2-day Ra{sup 223} isotope, its acute toxicity (organ weight changes, gross and microscopic pathology, and Fe{sup 59} utilization by the bone marrow), and long-term histopathological changes and alterations in the hemogram.
Date: February 21, 1958
Creator: Durbin, Patricia; Durbin, Patricia W.; Asling, C. Willet.; Jeung, Nylan; Williams, Marilyn H.; Post, James. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY PROGRESS REPORT FOR JANUARY 1961

Description: Work was begun to determine the physical properties of mica-filled diallyl phthalate. Both the impact and tensile strength values compared favorably wlth asbestos-filled DAP formulatlons. The tensile values compared with the upper limit tensile strength values for asbestos-filled formulations. Adiprene-ferric acetyl acetonate-polyol systems were developed as adhesives and their properties studied. Sources of kilogram quantities of Th/sup 2//sup 3//sup 0/ were investigated. The samples were analyzed by a direct CeF/sub 3/ precipitation procedurc or by a tributyl phosphate-cerium procedure. The half- life of Ra/sup 2//sup 2//sup 3/ was found to be 11.3700 plus or minus 0.0065 days. Differential thermal analyses were made of lanthanum and praseodymium metals. Three preilminary determinations of the density of molten cerium were made by the vacuum pycnometer method. An average value of 6.58 was obtained. Leaching tests in water and in 0.1N HCl were continued on fibers of an experimental glass containing 10 wt.%n plutonium oxide. (M.C.G.)
Date: January 31, 1961
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR MAY 1961 ON PLASTICS, RADIOELEMENTS, ISOTOPE SEPARATION, AND REACTOR FUELS

Description: tems were cast and cured. Results of chemical tests on aa epoxy curlang exudate are included. Comparison of solvent effects on retention of radioelements by stainless steel was started and data are tabulated for Ac/sup 227/, Th/sup 227/, a nd Ra/sup 22//sub 3/. Work on protactinium was resumed after suspension of this project in 1960. Methods for preparation of small quantities of highly enriched U isotopes are being examined. Included in the survey are chemical exchange, electromagnetic separation, gaseous and liquid thermal diffusion, gas centrifugation, and photochemical techniques. Continued investigation of viscosities of La and Pr for use in Pu alcontinued along with studies of Pu bearing glass fibers. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 30, 1961
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY PROGRESS REPORT FOR MARCH 1963

Description: Using six hot-wire columns and three concentric tube thermal diffusion columns a cascade system was arranged to produce 0.04 g of 90% C/sup 13/ per day using methane as the feed gas-. The ten liter shipment of purchased methane enriched to 60% C/sup 13/ was received. This gas will be enriched to 90% C/slup 13/. Before removing the equilibrated gas from the concentric tube columns in preparation for using methane enriched in C/sup 13/ as feed material, a sample of methane taken from the bottom of the last column contained greater than 65% C/sup 13/. The hydrolysis of protactinium was found to be completely controllable and reversible and can serve as the basis for its separation from other elements, particularly its decay products. The tendency to hydrolyze is not a unlque characteristic of protactinium, but is exhibited, under appropriate conditions, by Th/sup 227/ and Ra/sup 223/ at trace levels. Traces of protactinium in 1N H/ sub 2/SO/sub 4/ can be removed from solution by a coarse glass wool filter through which the decay products pass readily. The reverse is true if the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration is increased to 6N. The desorption of protactinium from platinum was a function of the reagent, the reagent concentration, and the amount of protactinium adsorbed. The relative solubility of protactinium in various reagents increased in the order: HNO/sub 3/ < HCl < H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ < H/ sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ < HF. Equations for computing the growth of the principal alpha-emitters in the Ac/sup 227/ decay chain were recalculated based on the recently redetermined half lives of Ac/sup 227/, Th/sup 227/, and Ra/sup 223/. Several laboratory experiments on waste disposal problems indicated that radioactivity levels in influent water can be significantly reduced by precipitating aluminum hydroxide as well as bismuth hydroxide in the ...
Date: March 30, 1963
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.; Grove, G.R.; Jones, L.V. & Rembold, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR MARCH 1962

Description: In research on plastics, flow curve data were obtained on asbestos- filled diallyl phthalate formulations. The tensile properties of adhesive formulations after 26 weeks cure time are being tested. In development of radioelements, progress is reported in investigations of kinetics invoived in Po(IV) reduction by ferrous iron and selective adsorption of trace elements. Development of separating and purifying processes is reported for Xe, H/sub 2/, and C. Work on the Ranger x-ray sensor was devoted to fiim casting techniques and Be metallography and deposition. Developmental work in Pu-bearing fuels is reported on techniques for differential thermai analysis, interfacial tension studies on liquids, cerium viscosity, Pu phase studies, and Pu-bearing glass. Developmental work in support of SNAP was devoted to welding, capsule design, source metallography, and recovery of U . Calorimetric measurements related to Ra/sup 223/ half life are reported. Development of a program for reduction of spectrometric data is also reported. (J.R.D.)
Date: March 30, 1962
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR MARCH 1961

Description: Adhesives. The effects obtained when diols and triols are used to cure Adiprene L-213 are discussed. Most of the formulations are very viscous and present difficulties in degassing operations. Ionium Project. Four plant samples having 1 ppm or more of Th/sup 2//sup 3//sup 0/ were analyzed for Th/sup 2//sup 3//sup 0/ in two different ways, one using HNO/sub 3/ digestion and the other using HClO/sub 4/ digestion. The difference between these two methods found for one sample is attributed to insolubility induced by calcining. Half Life of Radium-223. The decay of a purified Ra/sup 2//sup 2//sup 3/ sample was followed by alpha counting for 109 days; the results indicate that a long-lived impurity may be the cause of the nonconvergence of the probable error in the resolution time range. Purification of a composite sample containing Ac/sup 2// sup 2//sup 7/ to give a source of Ra/sup 2//sup 2//sup 3/ is described. Determination of Coincidence Correction. The coincidence correction was determined for a proportional alpha counter with Pb/sup 2//sup 1//sup 1/, and the best resolution times and half lives are given. Plutonium Alloy Research. The density of liquid Ce was measured from 825 to 1000 deg C with the vacuum pycnometer method; the thermal coefficient of cubical expansion is found to be very small, 33 x 10/sup -//sup 6/ cm/sup 3// cm/sup 3// deg C, and the volume change of fusion is also estimated to be small, less than 0.5%. The viscosities of molten La and Pr were determined from their melting points up to 996 deg C. Qualitative tests were made to study the wetting properties of Pu alloys on Ta. Pure liquid Pu did not wet Ta surfaces, but a Fu--43 at.% Co alloy had improved wetting properties. Plutonium-bearing Glass Fibers. Leaching tests were made at room temperature on ...
Date: March 30, 1961
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOUND LABORATORY MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR JUNE 1961 ON CHEMISTRY

Description: Plastic Research. The tensile strength of Dacron-filled diallyl phthalate was determined to average 4377 psi. Composition and stress-strain data are tabulated for ten adhesive films. Analytical studies of an adhesive exudate are reported. Radioelements. Results of analysis of ioniumbearing raffinates and residues for Th/sup 232/ and of aged>s Ra/sup 223/ for Ac/sup 2/2/sup >/s7>s are given. Progress on Pa recovery from raffinates and residues and separation from Nb is reported. Isotope Separation and Purification. Proposed work on gas centrifugal and photochemical separation of uranium isotopes is discussed. Progress on xenon and helium isotopes separation and purification is outlined. Reactor Fuels and Materials Development. The density of liquid La at 945 to 1000 deg C was determined. The performances of an oscillating Cup viscometer with La and Bi and of a high-temperature calorimeter with Po/sup 210/ are described. A study of the compatibility of Haynes 25 alloy with Pu at 9O0 deg C indicated that very little penetration took place after the first hour at 900 deg C. The efficiency of escape of alpha particles from a glass fiber containing 10 wt% pu oxide was determined to be approximately 72%. Eight glass compositions were evaluated for their ability to dissolve 15 wt% Pu oxide at 1650 deg C. A glass neutron standard containing Pu and Be oxides was prepared. (D.L.C.)
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: Eichelberger, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha particle emitters in medicine

Description: Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: Fisher, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of the radiological survey at 133 Maywood Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ025)

Description: Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 133 Maywood Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ025), was conducted during 1987. The survey results demonstrate that all radionuclide concentrations and measurements conform to DOE remedial action criteria. All values are at or below typical background values found in northern New Jersey. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.; Floyd, L.M. & Crutcher, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Octupole correlations in the heavy elements

Description: The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2/sup 6/-pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Chasman, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analyses of uranium and actinium gamma spectra: an application to measurements of environmental contamination

Description: A system for the reduction of the complex gamma spectra of nuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series, tailored to calculation of line intensities, analyses of errors, and identification of nuclides is described. This system provides an efficient technique for characterizing contamination in the environs of uranium mines and mills. Identification of the nuclides and calculation of their concentrations require accurate knowledge of gamma energies and absolute quantum intensities. For some spectral lines, there are no reported measurements of absolute quantum intensities and in some cases where reports are available the measured intensities are not in agreement. In order to improve this data base, the spectra of gamma rays (of nuclides in the uranium and actinium series) with energies between 40 and 1400 keV were measured using high-resolution germanium detectors. A brief description of the spectroscopy system, computational algorithms for deconvolution, and methods of calibration for energy and efficiency, are described. The measured energies and absolute quantum intensities are compared with those reported in the literature.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Momeni, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological safety evaluation report for NUWAX-79 exercise. [Simulation of nuclear weapons accident]

Description: An analysis of the radiological safety of the NUWAX-79 exercise to be conducted on the Nevada Test Site in April 1979 is given. An evaluation of the radiological safety to the participants is made using depleted uranium (D-38) in mock weapons parts, and /sup 223/Ra and its daughters as a radioactive contaminant of equipment and terrain. The radiological impact to offsite persons is also discussed, particularly for people living at Lathrop Wells, Nevada, which is located 7 miles south of the site proposed for the exercise. It is the conclusion of this evaluation that the potential radiological risk of this exercise is very low, and that no individual should receive exposure to radioactivity greater than one-tenth of the level permitted under current federal radiation exposure guidelines.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: King, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minimum detectable activities of contamination control survey equipment

Description: The Instrumentation External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of the Health Physics Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has performed a series of tests to determine the ability of portable survey instruments used at Hanford to detect radioactive contamination at levels required by DOE 5480.11. This semi-empirical study combines instrumental, statistical, and human factors as necessary to derive operational detection limits. These threshold detection values have been compared to existing contamination control requirements, and detection deficiencies have been identified when present. Portable survey instruments used on the Hanford Site identify the presence of radioactive surface contamination based on the detection of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and/or x-radiation. However, except in some unique circumstances, most contamination monitors in use at Hanford are configured to detect either {alpha}-radiation alone or {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation together. Testing was therefore conducted on only these two categories of radiation detection devices. Nevertheless, many of the results obtained are generally applicable to all survey instruments, allowing performance evaluations to be extended to monitoring devices which are exclusively {gamma}- and/or x-ray- sensitive. 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Goles, R.W.; Baumann, B.L. & Johnson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department