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Memory Functions among Children Irradiated for Brain Tumor

Description: Children who have received radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors have been shown to experience neurocognitive deficits which appear to increase over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the memory functioning of 22 children irradiated for brain tumor and 22 healthy children of the same age who had not received irradiation. Subjects were administered a brief form of the WISC-III, to obtain an IQ, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), to evaluate visual and verbal memory. Results indicated that, although there were no significant differences between the IQ scores of healthy children and children who had been irradiated, children who have received radiation therapy for brain tumor evidence memory deficits which effect visual and verbal memory abilities. Among the children who had been irradiated, as time since treatment increased, visual memory and overall memory functioning appeared to decline. Findings also suggested that children who received total tumor resection may evidence greater memory deficits than those who received only a partial resection. Visual memory was more closely related to IQ in the children irradiated for brain tumor than in the healthy children. The overall importance of research with this population lies in refining the understanding of memory deficits and strengths in order to formulate more effective remediation compensation, strategies.
Date: December 1995
Creator: McCormack, Sarah (Sarah Smith)
Partner: UNT Libraries

INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

Description: This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Venhuizen, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

Description: This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.
Date: May 23, 2003
Creator: Venhuizen, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the Midwest Proton Radiation Institute for the treatment of cancer and other diseases using proton radiation therapy. Final report

Description: The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility houses three research accelerators (a 205-MeV cyclotron, a 240-MeV synchrotron, and a 500-MeV synchrotron) with space to carry out a program of fundamental and applied research including nuclear and accelerator physics, materials science, radiation biology, and proton therapy. Twelve thousand square feet associated with the 205-MeV machine is being converted into a regional proton therapy center. This center is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of treatments, and research in the development of new treatments. There will be three patient treatment rooms and an outpatient clinic. During the funding period the following activities were undertaken: construction and commissioning of the T0 Achromat; design, construction, and commissioning of the Trunk Line; design of the Energy Selection Line for all three treatment rooms; construction of the Energy Selection Line to the first treatment room; and design of the Dose Delivery System for the Large Field Line. A detailed description of each of these activities is given.
Date: February 10, 2003
Creator: Cameron, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hierarchical neuropsychological functioning in pediatric survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Description: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common types of pediatric cancers. Improvements in treatment within the last 20 years have resulted in reduced mortality and a greater focus upon quality of life. Several researchers have documented neuropsychological impairments in children following treatment for ALL; however, there have not been any comparative studies documenting differences in neuropsychological functioning based upon treatment modality despite the documented effects of radiation therapy and combined radiation/chemotherapy upon the developing brain. In addition, past studies have focused on unitary measures, ignoring the hierarchical relationship between basic cognitive functions and more abstract skills. This study examined the neuropsychological functioning of 81 children who were treated for ALL at a metropolitan children's hospital. All children were tested a minimum of two years after the final treatment session and were administered the NEPSY. Results do not support any interactions or main effects with the exception of the age of the child at diagnosis. Children diagnosed prior to the age of 5 showed greater impairments on tasks measuring attention, memory, and visuospatial reasoning in comparison to peers diagnosed after age 6.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Larery, Angela R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Architectural and engineering design work for the Nevada Cancer Institute facility

Description: The purpose of this project was to complete the architectural and engineering design, program planning, and other preliminary work necessary to construct the new Nevada Cancer Institute facility. These goals were accomplished with the construction of a new building of approximately 119,000 gross square feet. The facility houses the diagnostic and radio therapeutic treatment laboratories, radiation oncology treatment facility, physician offices, and clinical research areas.
Date: December 31, 2004
Creator: Heather Murren, President
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

Description: Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Date: June 6, 2008
Creator: Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco & Wyrobek, Andrew J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

Description: The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients.
Date: August 29, 1997
Creator: Scott, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An HSEF for murine myeloid leukemia

Description: In the past decade, a large amount of effort has gone into the development of hit size effectiveness functions (HSEFs), with the ultimate aim of replacing the present absorbed dose-RBE-Q system. However, the absorbed dose determined at the tissue level is incapable of providing information on single hits on (doses to) the single cell. As a result, it is necessary to resort to microdosimetry, which is capable of providing not only the number of hits on cells, but the distribution of hit sizes as well. From this information, an HSEF can be derived. However, to date there have been no sets of data available on animals exposed to radiations of several qualities, and for which microdosimetric data were available. The objective of the present set of experiments was to remedy this situation. Large numbers of mice were exposed to radiations of several different qualities, and were observed throughout their entire lifespan for the appearance of myeloid leukemia. The HSEF developed for this neoplasm is presented and discussed.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Bond, V.P.; Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E.; Wuu, C.S.; Marino, S.A. & Zaider, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

Description: This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.
Date: September 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1992--July 15, 1995

Description: This research continues the long term goals of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. This program fits into the nuclear medicine component of DOE`s mission, which is aimed at enhancing the beneficial applications of radiation, radionuclides, and stable isotopes in the diagnosis, study and treatment of human diseases. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology/Immunology; and Imaging Physics. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Section under the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 will be employed in the Pharmacology/Immunology component in the period 1996--1999. Imaging Physics resolves relevant imaging related physics issues that arise during the experimentation that results. In addition to the basic research mission, this project also provides a basis for training of research scientists in radiochemistry, immunology, bioengineering and imaging physics.
Date: July 17, 1995
Creator: Larson, S.M. & Finn, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron and proton therapy in the treatment of cancer

Description: Several decades of clinical research have established that neutron and proton therapy constitute useful and practical additions to the radiation oncologist`s treatment modalities. This paper discusses the rationale for using these therapies and describes practical solutions to their implementation.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Lennox, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department