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FY 2002 Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

Description: This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders ("surveillance monitoring"); other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/ constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.
Date: October 31, 2001
Creator: Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P Evan; Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Newcomer, Darrell R. & Thornton, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

Description: This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.
Date: June 6, 2013
Creator: Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M. & Bisping, Lynn E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

Description: ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.
Date: November 28, 2012
Creator: Eslinger, Paul W. & Miley, Harry S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide-Chelating Agent Complexes in Low-Level Radioactive Decontamination Waste; Stability, Adsorption and Transport Potential

Description: Speciation calculations were done to determine whether organic complexants facilitate transport of radionuclides leached from waste buried in soils. EDTA readily mobilizes divalent transition metals and moderately impacts trivalent actinides. Picolinate readily mobilizes only Ni2+ and Co2+. These speciation predictions ignore the influence of soil adsorption and biodegradation that break apart the complexes. In adsorption studies, picolinate concentrations have to be >10-4 M to lower the adsorption of Ni and Co. For Sm(III), Th(IV), Np(V), U(VI), and Pu, the picolinate concentration must be >10-3 M before adsorption decreases. EDTA forms strong complexes with divalent transition metals and can stop adsorption of Ni and Co when EDTA solution concentrations are 10-5 M. EDTA complexes with Np(V), U(VI), and Pu are much weaker; EDTA concentrations would have to be >10-3 M to adversely effects non-transition metal/radionuclide adsorption. Most picolinate and ETDA-metal complexes appear to readily dissociate during interactions with soils. The enhanced migration of radionuclide-organic complexes may be limited to a few unique conditions. We recommend that mixtures of metal/radionuclides and EDTA should not be solidified or co-disposed with high pH materials such as cement. For weaker binding organic complexants, such as picolinate, citrate and oxalate, co-disposal of decontamination wastes and concrete should be acceptable.
Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: Serne, R. Jeffrey; Cantrell, Cantrell J.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Orr, Robert D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

Description: PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.
Date: March 29, 2013
Creator: Pierce, Eric M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Freedman, Vicky L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thallium-201 for medical use

Description: From 20th annual meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine; Miami Beach, Florida, USA (12 Jun 1973). The advantages of using /sup 201/Tl as an analog for K in diagnostic tracer studies are discussed. It is pointed out that the photons of /sup 201/Tl are detected with high efficiency and resolution in a lowenergy collimator gamma camera system. Tissue distribution studies in goats show that /sup 201/Tl concentrates in the renal medulla and would be of value in kidney function studies, has a differential uptake in melanomas, and concentrates in the myocardium, making it advantageous for myocardial visualization and function studies. (CH)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Lebowitz, E.; Greene, M.W.; Bradley-Moore, P.; Atkins, H.; Ansari, A.; Richards, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of environmental plutonium in the Trinity Site ecosystem after 27 years

Description: From 3rd international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association meeting; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (9 Sep 1973). Results are presented for a radioecological survey of the Trinity Site environs, where the world's first (July 1945) atomic bomb was detonated. The temporal behavior of the low environmental levels of the plutonium produced by this detonation are discussed. The data from this study were compared with similar data obtained in the Trinity Site environs nearly 20 years ago. The major change which was observed was an increased migration of Pu into the soils. Concentrations of Pu in vegetation and rodents were too low to make valid comparisons. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Hakonson, T.E. & Johnson, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of plutonium in liquid waste disposal areas at Los Alamos

Description: From third international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association meeting; Washington, District of Columbia, USA (9 Sep 1973). An ecological investigation is described of plutonium in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory environs. Data are presented on the distribution of plutonium in the alluvial sediments, water, vegetation, and rodents from Mortandad Canyon, an area which has been used for liquid waste disposal for 10 years. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Hakonson, T.E.; Johnson, L.J. & Purtymun, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core flow experiment protocol

Description: This letter report describes the current status of the core flow through apparatus and describes the protocol and test matrix to be followed during the initial experimental stage of radionuclide transport studies in the Integrated Testing task.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Viani, B.E. & Martin, S.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

Description: Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.
Date: April 8, 2009
Creator: Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M. & Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department