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Environmental Surveillance of the Palos Park Forest Preserve

Description: This is the second report describing an ongoing environmental surveillance program conducted at the Palos Park Forest Preserve near Chicago, Illinois. The Preserve was a site of a nuclear research laboratory (Site A) from 1943 to 1956 and a radioactive waste burial site (Plot M) from 1944 to 1949. An extensive radiological characterization of the site was conducted from February 1976 to August 1977, and tritium in the form of water was found to be the only radionuclide that migrated from the nuclear facilities. The results were published in US Department of Energy Report DOE/EV-0005/7. The present report summarizes the earlier findings and gives the detailed results of the work from August 1977 through December 1981. The vertical and horizontal distribution of tritium within the glacial till was determined from measurements of tritium in soil moisture. Chemical and radiochemical analyses were performed on a number of wells in the area. Tritiated water continued to be the only species that was observed to have migrated from the Plot M area. Migration from the Site A area was not observed. The concentration of tritium at the Red Gate Woods well, 1200 ft down-gradient from Plot M, continued to show the seasonal fluctuations of high concentrations in the winter and low concentrations in the summer. Monitoring of the Palos Park area is continuing.
Date: January 1983
Creator: Golchert, N. W.; Sedlet, J. & Hayes, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

Description: This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.
Date: May 15, 1997
Creator: Nuzum, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site

Description: This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations.
Date: February 21, 1995
Creator: Prignano, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semi-annual report of the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Quality Assessment Program

Description: This report presents the results from the analysis of the 44th set of environmental quality assessment samples (QAP XLIV) that were received on or before June 3, 1996. The QAP is designed to test the quality of environmental measurements being reported to the Department of Energy by it`s contractors. Since 1976, samples have been prepared and analyzed by the Environmental measurements Laboratory.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sanderson, C.G. & Greenlaw, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legacy material work-off project

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation`s (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Sloan, T.J. & Baker, D.H. IV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste classification sampling plan

Description: The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.
Date: May 27, 1998
Creator: Landsman, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Viability of long-lived fission products as signatures in forensic radiochemistry

Description: Forensic radiochemistry refers to studies on special nuclear materials, related to nonproliferation and anti-smuggling efforts. AMS (accelerator mass spectroscopy) measurement of long-lived fission products and U and Pu isotopes has the potential to significantly aid the field of forensic radiochemistry by providing new or more sensitive signatures and improving on the speed with which they can be determined. Expanding the suite of signatures obtainable form an illicit sample of special nuclear material increases the likelihood that its point of origin can be positively identified, leveraging LLNL`s impact on policy decisions regarding national security.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: McAninch, J.E.; Proctor, I.D.; Stoyer, N.J. & Moody, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, ...
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Eberhart, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation and collection of iodine, sulfur, and phosphorous anion complexes for subsequent radiochemical analysis

Description: We developed a method to separate anion complexes of sulfur, iodine, and phosphorus to enable determination by radiochemical techniques. This method involves ion chromatographic separation of the anion complexes from other highly emitting radioactive species such as cesium-137 and strontium-90 which interfere with radiochemical analysis. We essentially use the ion chromatograph as a sample pretreatment method. The samples are injected onto a cation exchange column which allows the anions to pass through while retaining the positively charged species. These anions are collected in the column effluent and measured by nuclear counting methods. The method was developed to enable measurement of trace radionuclides in radioactive waste. This report establishes the separation and collection protocol, collection efficiencies for sulfur, iodine, and phosphorus, which are dependent upon the sample matrix, and overall efficiencies and detection limits for the separation and subsequent radiochemical analysis.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Ekechukwu, A.A. & Dewberry, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of plutonium metal origins

Description: Forensic signatures are present in any Pu sample that can determine the sample`s origin: isotopic ratio of Pu, progeny species that grow into the sample, and contaminant species left over from incomplete purification of the Pu in fuel reprocessing. In the context of intelligence information, this can result in attribution of responsibility for the product of clandestine proliferant operations or material smuggled from existing stockpiles. A list of signature elements and what can be determined from them have been developed. Work needs to be done in converting concentrations of signature species into a quantitative forensic analysis, particularly in regard to reactor performance, but this should require only a small effort. A radiochemical analysis scheme has been developed for measuring these nuclides; more work is needed, particularly for determining fission product concentrations. A sample of Pu metal has been analyzed and several parameters determined that are strong indicators of its point of origin.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Moody, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-B-106 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

Description: This sampling and analysis plan identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective. This quality objective is part of the tank characterization plan for tank 241-B-106. This report also identifies procedures and requirements for collecting and characterizing samples form tank 241-B-106 by the push mode core sampling method.
Date: June 15, 1995
Creator: Conner, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of low levels of alpha in {sup 99}Mo product solutions.

Description: The conclusions of this report are that molybdenum can effectively be separated from uranium and plutonium using TRU-Resin; and that separation of the {sup 99}Mo from the actinides will reduce the analyst's exposure and simplify analysis for the actinide elements.
Date: March 5, 1998
Creator: Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calorimetric assay of {sup 60}Co sources from C-overbore facilities

Description: Cobalt irradiations were completed in two C-Reactor overbore tubes in support of Mission and Program investigations of isotope production. Tubes 1459 and 464 were each charged with approximately 4015 grams of cobalt in strips similar to BNL pieces described in a separate report. After discharge, the strips were placed in an underwater calorimeter to determine the heat contribution from isotopic decay, thereby allowing an assay of cobalt-60 concentrations. The cobalt-60 produced in tube 1464-C was retained by Douglas United Nuclear for source material in an underwater gamma irradiator at KE-Reactor; the remaining cobalt, from tube 1459-C, was shipped to Battelle-Northwest for further experiments and applications. A total of 396,400 Ci of cobalt-60 was produced in tube 1459-C and 272,700 Ci in tube 1464-C during the irradiations. Production in tube 1459-C occurred at the rate of 0.637 Ci/gm per 100 MWd/T of adjacent tube power; production in tube 1464-C occurred at the rate of 0.670 Ci/gm per 100 MWd/T of adjacent tube power. The total irradiation time was 880.813 full power days for tube 1459-C and 569.010 full power days for tube 1464-C.
Date: December 18, 1969
Creator: Sowa, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assays and screening of alpha contaminated soils using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy of thick soil samples

Description: A new approach to estimating concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants (e.g. U, Th, Ra, Pu, Am) in soil samples has been evaluated. The Victoreen Alpha Activity Monitor has been designed to empirically assay soil samples using low-resolution alpha spectroscopy, of thick soil samples. Pre-processing of the soil samples is minimal, involving only drying the soils and milling them to reduce inhomoceneities. Several laboratory tests of the instrument have been conducted. It has been shown that the instrument obeys simple counting statistics with measurement reproducibility improving with the inverse square root of the counting time. Using acquisition times of 1 to 24 hours the instrument Generated alpha assays of eighteen reference and field soil samples which were in good agreement with radiochemical analyses. It was observed that the alpha activity due to a 10pCi/g {sup 239}Pu spike added to a clean soil could be very readily distinguished from the 14pCi/g background activity of the soil. In a mock field screening test of 100 Pu-contaminated soils, the instrument demonstrated screening success rates ranging from 70% (at a screening level of 5pCi/g) to greater than 90% (at a screening level of 30pCi/g).
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Meyer, K.E.; Lucas, A.C. & Padovan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department