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Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

Description: This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

Description: This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

Description: NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Gallegos, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1996 Site environmental report

Description: The FEMP is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the FEMP in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the FEMP. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1996 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the FEMP progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Energy Report 1997 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

Description: Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1997. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. For 1997, the dose was 3.51 mrem. Airborne effluents from a 1mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed to over 90% of the EDE; more than 86% of the total dose contribution was through the air immersion pathway.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Jacobson, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

Description: The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Arnett, M. W. & Mamatey, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology basis for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Operating Specifications. Revision 3

Description: The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) consists of three retention basins, each with a nominal storage capacity of 6.5 million gallons. LERF serves as interim storage of 242-A Evaporator process condensate for treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility. This document provides the technical basis for the LERF Operating Specifications, OSD-T-151-00029.
Date: May 17, 1995
Creator: Johnson, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General separations area large maps for the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring reports. Volume 2, First and second quarters 1995

Description: Potentiometric surface maps and maps of cadmium concentrations, gross alpha activities, lead concentrations, mercury concentrations, nitrate concentrations, non-volatile beta activities, radium-226 and -228 activities, and tritium activities for the F- and H-Area seepage basins are included.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High sensitivity gamma spectrometry of air samples near SRS during 1985-1995

Description: High sensitivity gamma analysis of off-site air samples near the Savannah River Site (SRS) is achieved by collecting large volume air samples for analysis by ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry. A review of the 1985-1995 measurements has highlighted local and distant releases of man-made radionuclides, along with cosmogenic radionuclides which correlate with both solar and seasonal phenomena. Measurements typically involve 2-day air collection of a 70,000 m{sup 3} sample on a 51 cm x 51 cm cellulose filter using a high-capacity pump. Short-lived radon background activity is allowed to decay a few days, and then the filter is configured into a smaller calibrated volume and counted 1-3 days on a 30 percent-efficient HPGe in the Ultra-Low-Level Counting Facility. Representative detection limits for this method are shown in Table 1, and even lower limits are achievable by counting on the low-background 160 percent-efficient HPGe of the Underground Counting Facility.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Winn, W.G. & Cadieux, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Purity data on Redox start-up material through the 231 and 234-5 Buildings

Description: Redox effluent for production was first processed in the 231 Building on February 4, 1952. Samples of process streams were taken after each purification step to evaluate the adequacy of purification processes in,the 231 and 234-5 Buildings and to provide close control of this material. Data regarding pile residence histories, radiation surveys of ``Sample Cans``, reduction yields, C/Q values, and product purity after purification steps were accumulated and are presented in this report to establish preliminary data which may be used to evaluate future process changes.
Date: October 3, 1952
Creator: Collins, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Plant data for 200 Areas]

Description: This document provides data for 200 Area plants for the period of November 30, 1945 to June 10, 1946 (Building 292-B) and November 30, 1945 to August 22, 1946 (Building 292-T).
Date: August 31, 1945
Creator: Lindvig, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities.

Description: Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a �tritium labeling facility� operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and �ordinary� citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though �discovered� or �appreciated� only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating ...
Date: May 5, 1999
Creator: Harrach, R J & Peterson, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Half-plant zeta potential test, Interim report

Description: The production reactors operated by Douglas United Nuclear, Inc., use treated Columbia River water as the coolant on a once-through basis. Thus, radionuclides formed largely by the neutron activation of river salts are discharged to the river. One method of reducing the quantity of radionuclides in the effluent is to increase the efficiency of parent isotope removal during the coolant treatment process. It was recognized that an alum feed rate of 18 ppM is not necessarily optimum throughout the year. During certain periods it may be well in excess of requirements and overfeeding could be as detrimental to efficient parent isotope removal as underfeeding. Thus, a continuing effort has been underway to find a method for controlling alum feed rate to an optimum value. Flocculent feed rate control based on producing a constant value of the electrokinetic charge (zeta potential) of the floc has been practiced at some water treatment, plants. Although the hypothesis has not had universal acceptance in the water treatment field, laboratory and field data accumulated at Hanford indicated that further evaluation of the approach was warranted. In order to determine the effects of coagulant control based on zeta potential a half-reactor test was initiated at C Reactor on September 1, 1966. This report summarizes the results of the test.
Date: April 28, 1967
Creator: Geier, R.G. & Wells, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

Description: Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Houser, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank farm stack NESHAP designation determinations. Revision 2

Description: This document provides a determination of the status of Tank Farm Exhausters as regulated by the ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants`` (NESHAP) specified in the 40 Series Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``
Date: January 18, 1996
Creator: Crummel, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

284-E Powerhouse trench engineering study

Description: This document provides the basis for future use of the 284-E Powerhouse Trench as a transport conduit for effluents discharged from the 284-E Powerhouse in accordance with the requirements of the State Waste Discharge Permit, ST 4502.
Date: January 20, 1997
Creator: Crane, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of gamma activity from the PUREX stack, Number 296-A-10, HEPA filters

Description: In response to the Environmental Protection Agency`s requirements for evaluating radioactive emissions from stacks, this test plan was developed. The test plan employs the use of low resolution (NaI) portable gamma spectrometry to identify and measure gamma emitting radionuclides from HEPA filters. The test description, expected results, and test set-up and steps are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Barnett, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction fuel removal for 105-KE basin

Description: This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the modifications, installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities at 105-KE Basin. The 105-K east reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin (105-KE Basin) were constructed in the early 1950s and are located in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KE Basin contains 1,152 metric tons of SNF stored underwater in 3,673 open canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 24 years. The 105-KE Basin is constructed of unlined concrete and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The fuel is corroding and an estimated 1,700 cubic feet of sludge, containing radionuclides and miscellaneous materials, have accumulated in the basin. The 105-KE Basin has leaked radiologically contaminated water to the soil beneath the basin in the past most likely at the construction joint between the foundation of the basin and the foundation of the reactor. The purpose of the activities described in this Notice of Construction (NOC) is to enable the retrieval and transport of the fuel to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This NOC describes modifications, the installation of new equipment, and fuel removal and sludge relocation activities expected to be routine in the future. Debris removal activities described in this NOC will supersede the previously approved NOC (DOE/RL-95-65). The proposed modifications described are scheduled to begin in calendar year 1997.
Date: February 11, 1997
Creator: Kamberg, L.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors

Description: Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors (CAMs) were tested against the performance criteria of the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 761-6, ``Equipment for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Gaseous Effluents, Part 6: Specific Requirements for Transuranic Aerosol Effluent Monitors``, and against ANSI N42.17B, ``Performance Specification Health Physics Instrumentation--Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation``. The performance criteria require the CAM`s response to a radioactive source to remain within a tolerance while the CAM is exposed to an external influence such as temperature, electromagnetic fields, or ionizing radiations. The CAMs complied within specified tolerances with a majority of the performance specifications. The most significant problems with CAM performance were noted during exposures to external nonionizing radiation fields (radio frequency fields). At numerous frequencies, the CAMs did not respond to radioactive material in the filter holder. At other frequencies and in some orientations, the CAMs overresponded by orders of magnitude. In addition to sensitivity to external nonionizing radiation fields, the CAMs exhibited sensitivity to electrostatic discharges.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Johnson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

Description: This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.
Date: February 23, 1998
Creator: Kamberg, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department