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Beam Loss Monitors in the NSLS Storage Rings

Description: Beam loss monitors (BLM) have been used for more than two decades in the VUV ring at the NSLS. These have proved useful for optimizing injection and operation of the ring. Recently similar monitors have been installed in the X-ray ring and are being used to better understand injection, as well as operation of the ring. These units have been compared with the Bergoz BLMs, which have been mostly useful for understanding operating beam losses.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Kramer,S.L. & Fedurin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OPTIMIZING RADIOLOGICAL MONITOR SITING OVER THE CONTINENTAL U.S.

Description: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is installing a network of sensors in the US to monitor background radiation and elevated radiation levels expected from a possible nuclear incident. The network (RadNet) of 180 fixed sensors is intended to provide a basic estimate of the radiation level throughout the US and enhanced accuracy near population centers. This report discusses one of the objective methods for locating these monitors based on criteria outlined by the EPA. The analysis employs a representative climatology of incident scenarios that includes 50 release locations, four seasons and four times of the day. This climatology was calculated from 5,600 simulations generated with NOAA-ARL's HYSPLIT Lagrangian trajectory model. The method treats the release plumes as targets and monitors are located to maximize the number of plumes detected with the network. Weighting schemes based on detection only, dose-weighted detection and population-dose weighted detection were evaluated. The result shows that most of the monitors are located around the population centers, as expected. However, there are monitors quite uniformly distributed around the less populated areas. The monitors at the populated areas will provide early warning to protect the general public, and the monitors spread across the country will provide valuable data for modelers to estimate the extent and the transport of the radioactive contamination.
Date: October 29, 2007
Creator: Chen, K; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Kurzeja, R; Lance Osteen, L & Saleem Salaymeh, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration of a gamma calibration well with an energy-compensated Geiger-Mueller (G-M) tube.

Description: A working-standard Radcal model 1515 radiation monitor with the 1800cc ion chamber was used previously at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to calibrate and perform routine QA checks on the low-level gamma well, which produces exposure rates in the range of 0.2 mR/h to 10 mR/h. During long integration times (e.g. 24-48 hrs) with the 1800 cc ion chamber, which were required to obtain the necessary precision, changes in temperature and pressure and fluctuations in the zero offset introduced errors that were difficult to account for. An energy compensated G-M tube (SHP-270) was calibrated as a Working Standard to calibrate and perform QA checks on the low-level gamma well. Energy correction factors were determined since the SHP-270 does not have a linear energy response. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to determine the exposure rate in 50 keV energy bins as a function of source distance in the well. The results of these calculations were folded into the energy correction factors of the SHP-270 to determine the Corrected Exposure Rate as a function of source distance. To recalibrate the gamma well, the Corrected Exposure Rates were loaded into the source control algorithm, which was then verified to work correctly.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: George, G. L. (Gerald L.); Seagraves, D. T. (David T.) & Valdez, D. T. (Darlene T.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

Description: This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).
Date: December 14, 1999
Creator: Kinkel, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

Description: The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.
Date: May 26, 2003
Creator: Yates, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of work for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for Effluent Monitoring during Calendar Year 1996

Description: This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public from those emissions. This report complies with the reporting requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ``Protection of the Environment,`` Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (40 CFR 61 Subpart H) and Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 246-247).
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Gleckler, B. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An optimized international vehicle monitor

Description: The security plans for many DOE facilities require the monitoring of pedestrians and vehicles to control the movement of special nuclear material (SNM). Vehicle monitors often provide the outer-most barrier against the theft of SNM. Automatic monitors determine the presence of SNM by comparing the gamma-ray and neutron intensity while occupied, to the continuously updated background radiation level which is measured while the unit is unoccupied. The most important factors in choosing automatic vehicle monitors are sensitivity, cost and in high traffic applications total monitoring time. The two types of automatic vehicle monitors presently in use are the vehicle monitoring station and the drive-through vehicle monitor. These two types have dramatically different cost and sensitivities. The vehicle monitoring station has a worst-case detection sensitivity of 40 g of highly enriched uranium, HEU, and a cost approximately $180k. This type of monitor is very difficult to install and can only be used in low traffic flow locations. The drive-through vehicle portal has a worst-case detection sensitivity of 1 kg of HEU and a cost approximately $20k. The world`s political situation has created a pressing need to prevent the diversion of SNM from FSU nuclear facilities and across international borders. Drive-through vehicle monitors would be an effective and practical nuclear material proliferation deterrent if their sensitivity can be improved to a sufficient level. The goal of this project is to evaluate different detector configurations as a means of improving the sensitivity of these instruments to achieve a vehicle monitor that is economical, practical to install, and has adequate sensitivity to be an effective barrier to illegal transportation of SNM.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: York, R.L.; Close, D.A. & Fehlau, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors

Description: Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors (CAMs) were tested against the performance criteria of the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 761-6, ``Equipment for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Gaseous Effluents, Part 6: Specific Requirements for Transuranic Aerosol Effluent Monitors``, and against ANSI N42.17B, ``Performance Specification Health Physics Instrumentation--Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation``. The performance criteria require the CAM`s response to a radioactive source to remain within a tolerance while the CAM is exposed to an external influence such as temperature, electromagnetic fields, or ionizing radiations. The CAMs complied within specified tolerances with a majority of the performance specifications. The most significant problems with CAM performance were noted during exposures to external nonionizing radiation fields (radio frequency fields). At numerous frequencies, the CAMs did not respond to radioactive material in the filter holder. At other frequencies and in some orientations, the CAMs overresponded by orders of magnitude. In addition to sensitivity to external nonionizing radiation fields, the CAMs exhibited sensitivity to electrostatic discharges.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Johnson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Description: A vendor was selected for the diamond wire technology demonstration scheduled for this summer at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). A team consisting of personnel from FIU-HCET, PPPL, and AEA Technology reviewed the submitted bids. FIU-HCET will contract this vendor. At the SRS Ninth ICT teleconference, the ICT team discussed the status of the following demonstrations: LRAD; x-ray, K-edge; Strippable Coatings; Thermal Spray Vitrification; Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction; and Electrets. The LRAD demo is complete, and the x-ray/K-edge, Strippable Coatings, and Electrets demos are ongoing. The Asbestos and Thermal Spray Vitrification demos require more laboratory testing. The Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction demo is undergoing procurement. Five FIU-HCET staff members took the 1S0 14000 environmental auditor training course February 22-26, 1999, given by ASC. The test plan for the Facility Dismantlement Technology Assessment is finished and ready for internal review.
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Ebadian, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UIUC reactor support equipment upgrade

Description: The FY94 grant was used for the purchase of 3 digital area radiation monitors to replace an aging (+30 years) Tracerlab system. Funds were also available for the purchase of items to construct an underwater camera. These items have all been purchased and are installed/constructed. The underwater camera will be of great use when fuel inspections are performed at the beginning of the year.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Holm, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIM and diagnostic placement for NIF experiments

Description: The input that has been provided on the NIF experiment setup sheets has allowed us to review the diagnostic and DIM placement as well as the baseline unconverted light management plan. We have done an iteration to identify common diagnostic lines of sight, and with additional requirements defined by specific experiments, we propose (1) a baseline plan for DIM placement requiring only five DIMs that may be moved between up to seven DIM ports, and (2) a modified baseline unconverted light management plan. We request additional input to identify primary vs. secondary diagnostics for each experiment definition.
Date: September 14, 1999
Creator: Kalantar, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building 773-A, Lab F003 Glovebox Project Radiological Design Summary Report

Description: Engineering Standards present the radiological design criteria and requirements, which must be satisfied for all SRS facility designs. The radiological design criteria and requirements specified in the standard are based on the Code of Federal Regulations, DOE Orders, Site manuals, other applicable standards, and various DOE guides and handbooks. This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. This document reports a radiological design review for the STREAK lab glovebox upgrades of inlet ventilation, additional mechanical and electrical services, new glovebox instrumentation and alarms. This report demonstrates that the gloveboxes meet the radiological design requirements of Engineering Standards.
Date: November 13, 2003
Creator: Gaul, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

Description: MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.
Date: June 12, 2006
Creator: McGregor, Douglas S.; Adams, Marvin L.; Carron, Igor & Nelson, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two perspectives on a successful lab/industry technology transfer

Description: Technology transfer from government laboratories to private business is of increasing concern in today`s marketplace. Some prospective partners (on both sides) believe that technology transfer is a relatively simple process requiring little or no extra effort from the participants. In the authors experience this is not true and, in fact, positive results from a collaboration are directly proportional to the effort that both parties invest in the relationship. Communication, both between prospective partners before an agreement and between partners following the agreement, is essential. Neither technology nor marketing can stand by itself; it is the combination of the two that can produce a useful and available product. Laboratories and industries often have very different ways of looking at almost everything. Misunderstandings arising from these differences can short-circuit the transfer process or result in the production of a product that is unsalable. The authors will cover some of their experiences, potential problems, and their solutions. Examples discussed here is transfer of technology for long-range alpha detection developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and transferred to Eberline Instrument Corporation.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: MacArthur, D.W. & Ulbrich, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eberline Alpha 7L Test Report

Description: An Eberline continuous alpha air monitor model Alpha 7L was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the capabilities available at the Environmental Effects Laboratory (EELab). A series of tests were performed to ensure that procured units meet the requirements of the purchasing facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In addition to reporting on the results of each test, other activities were performed to reduce discovered susceptibilities. The parameters monitored during the tests typically included the airflow rate and/or net {sup 239}Pu concentration values (pCi/liter). In addition, the spectrum display and operational status were monitored. Follow up tests were also performed on two LANL-provided production units. The results of those tests are at the end of this report.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Chiaro, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Definition and means of maintaining the effluent stack monitors portion of the PFP safety envelope

Description: The Effluent Stack Monitors ensure that the release of alpha emitting radionuclides to the environment via the building exhaust stacks is continuously monitored and alarms are initiated if the release exceeds identified limits. This document defines the safety envelope for the Effluent Stack Monitors and identifies the operability requirements, components, and procedures which ensure this safety envelope is maintained.
Date: January 21, 1997
Creator: Sullivan, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beta contamination monitor energy response

Description: Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Bjork, C.W. & Olsher, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operability test procedure for the TK-900 beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system

Description: This operability test procedure will verify that the 221-B beta/gamma liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the six inch chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. An off-line, skid mounted, beta/gamma radiation monitor and pH monitor was installed near stairwell three in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The skid mounted monitoring system includes two radiation detectors and a pH meter, both with local digital displays. Output signals from each monitor are also received and displayed by the Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). Pumps, motors, gauges, valves and transport lines complement the skid monitoring system. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system.
Date: February 24, 1995
Creator: Weissenfels, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration interval technical basis document

Description: This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Chiaro, P.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

Description: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise control of radiological monitoring equipment

Description: Although vacuum pumps on continuous air monitors (CAMs) do not produce noise levels above regulatory limits, engineering controls were used to establish a safer work environment. Operations performed in areas where CAMs are located are highly specialized and require precision work when handling nuclear materials, heavy metals, and inert gases. Traditional methods for controlling noise such as enclosing or isolating the source and the use of personal protection equipment were evaluated. An innovative solution was found by retrofitting CAMs with air powered multistage ejectors pumps. By allowing the air to expand in several chambers to create a vacuum, one can eliminate the noise hazard altogether. In facilities with adequate pressurized air, use of these improved ejector pumps may be a cost-effective replacement for noisy vacuum pumps. A workplace designed or engineered with noise levels as low as possible or as close to background adds to increased concentration, attention to detail, and increased production.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Rubick, R.D.; Stevens, W.W. & Burke, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department