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STUDIES ON LARGE AREA SUB-FABRIC BURNS

Description: The detonation of shot one at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954, produced a fallout of radioactive ash upon Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. The distribution of the radioactive ash on the islands and in the plants and animals of the area has been studied and evaluated. During the first expedition to Rongelap Atoll on March 26, 1954, biological samples were collected and measurements made of the radiation contamination. On three additional expeditions extensive collections of material were made for this study, the last on January 25-30, 1955. The decline in radioactivity was measured in 1499 samples of fish, invertebrates, land plants, algae, birds, plankton, soil, and water from the Rongelap area. During this study particular emphasis was placed upon evaluation of the radioactivity in food used by the natives. Coconut milk collected on March 26, 1954, contained 1.03 microcuries per kilogram of wet tissue while the coconut meat had 1.16 mu c/kg. By January 25-30, 1955, the level in coconut milk had declined to 0.041 mu c/kg and the meat to 0.036 mu c/ kg. Fish muscle on March 26, 1954, averaged 2.74 mu c/kg and fish liver 204.0 mu c/kg. The decline to January 25-30 was 0.10 mu c/kg for the muscle and 3.52 mu c/kg for the liver of fish. Somewhat similar declines were found for clam muscle, crab muscle, bird muscle and liver, and for squash, papaya, arrowroot and pandanus. The level of radioactivity was highest in the northern portion of the atoll, except for samples of algae and fish-eating birds, collected during January 1955 from the southern part of the atoll, which had higher levels of radioactivity than samples collected from the northern islands on the same date. This may indicate a translocation of radioactive materials within the lagoon. (auth)
Date: July 5, 1957
Creator: Berkley, K.M. & Pearse, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A SUMMARY OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN USAEC FACILITIES, 1961-1962

Description: Information is presented on accidents andd incidents occurring during 1961 and 1962 in plants owned and operated by the AEC. Revised reporting requirements established by the AEC in April 1962 are outlined. Data are summarized on radiation exposure of AEC contractor personnel, accidents involving radioactive materials, andd accidents involving fatalities. (C.H.)
Date: October 31, 1964
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Radiation Injury--a Correlation of Leukocyte Depression With Mortality in the Japanese Exposed to the Atomic Bombs

Description: Data collected by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Japanese data of 1945 were reevaluated to see whether the leukocyte count at various time intervals reliably prognosticates death survival. There is a good correlation between death and depression of the leukocyte count taken during the third to fifth week after exposure. The correlation is perhaps best for counts taken during the third week. Leukocyte counts less than 3000 are not so hazardous in the fourth and fifth week as in the third week. It is believed that the leukocyte count is the best single indicator of severe radiation injury, and that electronic methods of counting leukocytes should be made available to assist in casualty sorting and direction of therapy. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1962
Creator: Jacobs, G. J.; Lynch, F. X.; Cronkite, E. P. & Bond, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Irradiation on the Intestinal Cell Population

Description: The radiation syndrome that kills mice in 3.5 days was found to be mainly due to irradiation of the small intestine. Radiation injuries were defined by anatomical fractionation following irradiation first of the entire body region, then of smaller areas, and finally of surgically exposed individual organs. Irradiation with 1200 rad or more of any region that includes the entire small intestine resulted in death at precisely the same time as irradiation of the whole body. Irradiation of any major fraction of the bowel alone resulted in death under the same circumstances but at a slightly later time, and irradiation of the entire body minus the protected surgically exposed small intestine did not cause a comparable syndrome. The sequence of histological changes in the intestinal epithelium after irradiation is described and cell population kinetics in the irradiated animal is discussed. (C.H.)
Date: January 1, 1963
Creator: Quastler, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FURTHER STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TIME AND DEPTH OF DAMAGE OF MODERATE AND SEVERE CUTANEOUS BURNS

Description: To extend our earlier studies on the relationship between exposure time and depth of damage of moderate and severe burns, injuries were produced by each of six radiant exposures delivered during varying exposure times. The exposures investigated were: 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 calories per square centimeter. Within this range, as the radiant exposure increased, the exposure time for the production of maximum damage also increased. Injury from a given radiant exposure was less with exposure times either longer or shorter than some immediate time which led to the most severe injury. The relationship between steam bleb formation and decreased depth of injury from short exposure times is pointed out. When the superficial layers of the skin become so hot that vaporization of tissue fluid occurs, energy which might otherwise damage the deep layers is diverted by the conversion of water to steam. For radiant exposures between 8 cal/cm/sup 2/ and 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ delivered with a square pulse, it is possible to predict with fair accuracy the exposure time which will result in the deepest burn. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1957
Creator: Payne, F.W. & Hinshaw, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUTDIES ON SUB-FABRIC BURNS: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SURFACE APPEARANCE AND DEPTH OF DAMAGE A METHOD OF STUDY, PRELIMINARY RESULTS, AND OBSERVATIONS OF WOUND HEALING

Description: Relationships between surface appearance and actual depth of damage of sub-fabric burns have been established for only a few burns. Since surface appearance has been the most widely used criterion for evaluating the ability of fabrics to protect against radiant energy, it is of some importance to know whether or not bare skin and sub-fabric burns of similar appearance are of comparable severity. In this experiment it was found that both types of burn when produced by one second exposures and when graded 3/sup +/ moderate because of their surface appearance are, indeed, equally severe. Observations on healing of the two types of burn suggest no differences in the manner or rate of tissue restoration. (auth)
Date: December 8, 1958
Creator: Berkley, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department