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Dependance of TWRS FSAR X/Qs on distance and example doses at Highway 240 with stationary and moving receptors

Description: A discussion of the reasons for the dependance of X/Q on receptor distance and compass sector is presented. In addition, X/Qs are calculated for three receptor scenarios on Highway 240 including a moving receptor. Example radiological doses and toxicological exposures at Highway 240 are calculated for two accidents already analyzed in the TWRS FSAR.
Date: September 23, 1996
Creator: Himes, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity

Description: Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms` responses to radiation.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Harrison, F.L. & Anderson, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose refinement: ARAC's role

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970�s has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC�s primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates�release rates, mix of material, and release geometry�and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate ARAC�s roll in dose refinement. A brief description of the ...
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Baskett, R L; Ellis, J S & Sullivan, T J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Using the output of programs 653 and 654, each card of which contains the dose information for one dose point at one energy, program 655 produces the sum of the dose values of all energies for one dose point. Program details are given including 650 input and output formats, operating instructions, and guides. (auth)
Date: December 19, 1958
Creator: Stueck, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PERIODIC RADIATION SURVEY. CORE I, SEED 1. Section 3. Test Results T- 612394

Description: Radiation levels inside the concrete enclosures but outside the reactor plant containers after shutdown were determined. Radiation levels in the 1AC, 1BC boiler chamber enclosures and in the reactor chamber enclosure were on the average higher than in previous tests. The highest reading obtained was 7.5 mr/ hr and the lowest reading was 0.03 mr/hr; the mean level was 3.76 mr/hr as compared to 1.37 mr/hr in previous tests. (W.L.H.)
Date: June 17, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentans larvae collected from White Oak Creek, an area contaminated by radioactive waste from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and from six uncontaminated areas were examined for chromosomal aberrations. White Oak Creek populations were exposed to absorbed doses as high as 230 rads per year or about 1000 times background. Chromosomal maps were constructed to make a general comparison of the banding pattern of the salivary chromosomes of the C. tentans in the East Tennessee area with those of Canada and Europe. These maps were used as a reference in scoring aberrations. Fifteen different chromosomal aberrations were found in 365 larvae taken from the irradiated population as compared with five different aberrations observed in 356 larvae from six control populations, but the mean number of aberrations per larva did not differ in any of the populations. The quantitative amount of heterozygosity was essentially the same in the irradiated and the control population, but there were three times the variety of chromosomal aberrations found in the irradiated area. From this evidence it was concluded that chronic low-level irradiation from radioactive waste was increasing the variability of chromosomal aberrations without significantly increasing the frequency. It was also concluded that chromosomal polymorphism can be maintained in a natural population without superiority of the heterozygous individuals. (C.H.)
Date: January 29, 1964
Creator: Blaylock, B G; Auerbach, S I & Nelson, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

Description: The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.
Date: July 21, 2009
Creator: Brenner, David J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDOS: conversational computer codes to implement ICRP-10-10A models for estimation of internal radiation dose to man

Description: INDOS1, INDOS2, and INDOS3 (the INDOS codes) are conversational FORTRAN IV programs, implemented for use in time-sharing mode on the ORNL PDP-10 System. These codes use ICRP10-10A models to estimate the radiation dose to an organ of the body of Reference Man resulting from the ingestion or inhalation of any one of various radionuclides. Two patterns of intake are simulated: intakes at discrete times and continuous intake at a constant rate. The IND0S codes provide tabular output of dose rate and dose vs time, graphical output of dose vs time, and punched-card output of organ burden and dose vs time. The models of internal dose calculation are discussed and instructions for the use of the INDOS codes are provided. The INDOS codes are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1974
Creator: Killough, G.G. & Rohwer, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of flammable gas hazard and potential consequences in tank waste remediation system facility at the Hanford site

Description: This document provides a summary of the flammable gas program since 1992. It provides the best understanding of generation, retention, release of flammable gases. It gives a composition for each of the flammable gas tanks, calculates postulated concentrations in the event of a release, calculates the pressure obtained during a burn, and provides radiological and toxicological consequences. Controls from the analysis are found in WHC-SD-WM-SAR-067.
Date: December 11, 1996
Creator: Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of microdosimetric techniques in radiation protection measurements

Description: A major objective of radiation protection is to determine the dose equivalent for routine radiation protection applications. As microdosimetry has developed over approximately three decades, its most important application has been in measuring radiation quality, especially in radiation fields of unknown or inadequately known energy spectra. In these radiation fields, determination of dose equivalent is not straightforward; however, the use of microdosimetric principles and techniques could solve this problem. In this paper, the authors discuss the measurement of lineal energy, a microscopic analog to linear energy transfer, and demonstrate the development and implementation of the variance-covariance method, a novel method in experimental microdosimetry. This method permits the determination of dose mean lineal energy, an essential parameter of radiation quality, in a radiation field of unknown spectrum, time-varying dose rate, and high dose rate. Real-time monitoring of changes in radiation quality can also be achieved by using microdosimetric techniques.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Chen, J.; Hsu, H.H.; Casson, W.H. & Vasilik, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation dose estimates for radiopharmaceuticals

Description: Tables of radiation dose estimates based on the Cristy-Eckerman adult male phantom are provided for a number of radiopharmaceuticals commonly used in nuclear medicine. Radiation dose estimates are listed for all major source organs, and several other organs of interest. The dose estimates were calculated using the MIRD Technique as implemented in the MIRDOSE3 computer code, developed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Internal Dose Information Center. In this code, residence times for source organs are used with decay data from the MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes to produce estimates of radiation dose to organs of standardized phantoms representing individuals of different ages. The adult male phantom of the Cristy-Eckerman phantom series is different from the MIRD 5, or Reference Man phantom in several aspects, the most important of which is the difference in the masses and absorbed fractions for the active (red) marrow. The absorbed fractions for flow energy photons striking the marrow are also different. Other minor differences exist, but are not likely to significantly affect dose estimates calculated with the two phantoms. Assumptions which support each of the dose estimates appears at the bottom of the table of estimates for a given radiopharmaceutical. In most cases, the model kinetics or organ residence times are explicitly given. The results presented here can easily be extended to include other radiopharmaceuticals or phantoms.
Date: April 1996
Creator: Stabin, M. G.; Stubbs, J. B. & Toohey, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental assessment of absorbed dose to mineralized bone tissue from internal emitters: An electron paramagnetic resonance study

Description: EPR resonances attributable to radiation-induced centers in hydroxyapatite were not detectable in bone samples supplied by the USTUR. These centers are the basis for imaging and dose assessment. Presumable, the short range of the alpha particles emitted precluded the formation of appreciable amounts of hydroxyapatite centers. However, one bone sample did offer a suggestion of hydroxyapatite centers and newly-developed methods to extract this information will be pursued.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Desrosiers, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expected residence time model

Description: The Transportation Technology Department of Sandia National Laboratories develops analytical and computational tools for the US Department of Energy to assess the radiological consequences and risks from the transportation of radioactive materials by all modes. When large quantities of materials are to be transported movements may occur over an extended period of time in what is collectively referred as a ``shipping campaign``. Since the routes over which the shipments occur often remain the same, cumulative exposure to individuals inhabiting the population zones adjacent to the transport links must be estimated. However, individuals do not remain in the same residences throughout their lifetimes and, in fact, move quite often. To appropriately allocate exposures among populations over extended periods of time, perhaps years, requires a model that accounts for three population categories; (1) the original populations residing in the areas adjacent to the transport links, (2) individuals moving out and (3) individuals moving into residences in the designated areas. The model described here accounts for these conditions and will be incorporated as a user option in the RADTRAN computer code for transportation consequence and risk analysis (Reference 1). RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the consequences and risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S. & Kanipe, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department