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Methods of Particle Detection for High-Energy Physics Experiments

Description: Particle detection instruments may be divided into two classes; devices which see the actual path of the particle, and counting devices which indicate the passage of a particle. Examples of each class are given, the characteristics of each example are tabulated, and the uses for each device are discussed. (D.E.B.)
Date: August 4, 1958
Creator: Bradner, H. & Glaser, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chapter 9: Electronics

Description: Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.
Date: December 19, 2006
Creator: Grupen, Claus & Shwartz, Boris A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Presented here is the current status of the STAR Detector. STAR is one of the four detectors being constructed at the RHIC collider facility. The STAR detector is scheduled to have its first engineering run with the RHIC beams about six months from the date of this conference. The STAR project is on schedule and expects to recomplete on time.
Date: January 9, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection and Measurement of Nuclear Radiation

Description: The technique of radiation characterization is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new methods and their practi-cal aspects. Each type of detector is discussed in terms of its principle of operation and its applicability to various problems in counting and spectrometry. Auxiliary electronic instrumentation and the function of each instrument are described in general terms. Other topics discussed include low-level counting, absolute counting, and the mounting of radioactive sources. (137 references.) (C.H.)
Date: December 1, 1961
Creator: O'Kelley, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The exposure-time for fission fragment catcher foils, used in nuclear reactor power mapping, was arbitrarily set at 20 minutes. Work performed to evaluate this choice and to attempt an optimization of the exposure time is reported. A true optimum was not found. Forty minute runs are suggested, however, as a practical optimization and as an alternative to the 20 minute runs in current usage. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Renaker, J.N. & Clark, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The physical and radiation characteristics of plutonium aerosols are reviewed briefly. A number of detecting and sampling devices and techniques are discussed for application to plutonium aerosols under conditions of reactor operations. The monitoring program and the Pu-fueled reactors at ANL-Idaho are described. (D.L.C.)
Date: July 1, 1963
Creator: Stoddart, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The use of KEWB-B as a calibration source for pulse detection instruments is proposed. As a result, more information was needed: radial and axial distributions of fissions, number of fissions seen by the detection instruments, and materials seen by the detection instruments. The calibrations were achieved in six transient runs. (T.R.H.)
Date: June 20, 1960
Creator: Spiegler, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

Description: IceCube is a 1 km{sup 3} neutrino detector now being built at the Amudsen-Scott South Pole Station. It consists of 4800 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will observe astrophysical neutrinos with energies above about 100 GeV. IceCube will be able to separate {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub t}, and {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions because of their different topologies. IceCube construction is currently 50% complete.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Collaboration, IceCube; Klein, Spencer R & Klein, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-speed, multi-channel detector readout electronics for fast radiation detectors

Description: In this project, we are developing a high speed digital spectrometer that a) captures detector waveforms at rates up to 500 MSPS b) has upgraded event data acquisition with additional data buffers for zero dead time operation c) moves energy calculations to the FPGA to increase spectrometer throughput in fast scintillator applications d) uses a streamlined architecture and high speed data interface for even faster readout to the host PC These features are in addition to the standard functions in our existing spectrometers such as digitization, programmable trigger and energy filters, pileup inspection, data acquisition with energy and time stamps, MCA histograms, and run statistics. In Phase I, we upgraded one of our existing spectrometer designs to demonstrate the key principle of fast waveform capture using a 500 MSPS, 12 bit ADC and a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. This upgraded spectrometer, named P500, performed well in initial tests of energy resolution, pulse shape analysis, and timing measurements, thus achieving item (a) above. In Phase II, we are revising the P500 to build a commercial prototype with the improvements listed in items (b)-(d). As described in the previous report, two devices were built to pursue this goal, named the Pixie-500 and the Pixie-500 Express. The Pixie-500 has only minor improvements from the Phase I prototype and is intended as an early commercial product (its production and part of its development were funded outside the SBIR). It also allows testing of the ADC performance in real applications.The Pixie-500 Express (or Pixie-500e) includes all of the improvements (b)-(d). At the end of Phase II of the project, we have tested and debugged the hardware, firmware and software of the Pixie-500 Express prototype boards delivered 12/3/2010. This proved substantially more complex than anticipated. At the time of writing, all hardware bugs have been fixed, the ...
Date: June 22, 2012
Creator: Hennig, Wolfgang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

Description: Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of {approx} 3 x 10{sup 8} Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10{sup 10} Ohm*cm and with a average {mu}{tau} product for electrons of {approx} 2 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples {approx}2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken ...
Date: May 19, 2007
Creator: Lynn, Kelvin G. & Jones, Kelly A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors

Description: The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.
Date: October 28, 2003
Creator: Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig & Lee, Julie S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department