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An Evaluation of Air-Borne Radar as a Means of Avoiding Atmospheric Turbulence

Description: "Gust-velocity measurements and air-borne-radar observations obtained during a transcontinental flight in July 1947 have been analyzed as part of a general investigation of the uses of air-borne radar. The analysis indicates that some reduction in turbulence and a consequent reduction in the risk of encountering the larger gust velocities may be obtained by avoiding portions of clouds giving a radar echo" (p. 1).
Date: November 22, 1948
Creator: Steiner, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Coherent FMCW LIDAR Mapping System for Automated Tissue Debridment

Description: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a prototype 850-nm FMCW lidar system for mapping tissue damage in burn cases for the US Army Medical Research and Material Command. The laser system will provide a 3D-image map of the burn and surrounding area and provide tissue damage assessment.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Allgood, G.O.; Hutchinson, D.P. & Richards, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

Description: Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A flight and analog study of the effect of elevating the radar-boresight axis upon stability and tracking performance of an automatically controlled interceptor

Description: Report presenting flight and analog-simulator tests with a prototype automatic interceptor in order to study the effects of elevating the radar-boresight axis on the stability and tracking performance of the system. The interceptor was designed to perform the lead-pursuit type of attacks and test runs were made in flight and on the analog simulator with and without lead-angle computation. Results regarding the effects of interceptor rolling motion upon tracking errors, similarity of flight results and analog-computer results, effect of elevating the radar-boresight axis upon stability, and application of the principle of elevated radar-boresight axis are provided.
Date: October 16, 1957
Creator: Cheatham, Donald C. & Mathews, Charles W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of the AN/SPS-1 Radar Antenna in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

Description: Tests have been conducted to determine the drive-motor torque and the static force and moment characteristics of the AN/SPS-1 radar antenna. Shifting the longitudinal position of the antenna had very little effect on the drive-motor torque, which reached a maximum value expressed in terms of dynamic pressure (T/q)(sub max) of 1.15 at an azimuth angle of 245. The maximum observed values of rolling, pitching, and yawing moments in terms of dynamic pressure are -29.0, 66.6, and 13.4, respectively.
Date: December 22, 1947
Creator: May, Ralph W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight investigation of factors affecting pilots' ability to utilize a radarscope display of steering information

Description: Report presenting results of a flight investigation of a radar fire-control system installed in a fighter airplane. Some of the factors included in the radar evaluation are "noise" of the steering dot, lack of target-attitude information, and sensitivity and linearity of the display.
Date: November 23, 1956
Creator: Faber, Stanley; Cheatham, Donald C. & Champine, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Investigation of Radome Icing and Icing Protection

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted in the icing research tunnel to determine the icing characteristics, the effects of icing on radar operation, and the protection requirements for two radome configurations. The radomes were for the F-89 airplane and were investigated at airspeeds up to 290 miles per hour, air total temperatures from -15 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit, water contents up to 1.0 gram per cubic meter, and angles of attack of 0 and 4 degrees.
Date: January 20, 1953
Creator: Lewis, James P. & Blade, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAR ambiguous range suppression.

Description: Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reflectors for SAR performance testing.

Description: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAR impulse response with residual chirps.

Description: A Linear Frequency-Modulated (LFM) chirp is a function with unit amplitude and quadratic phase characteristic. In a focused Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, a residual chirp is undesired for targets of interest, as it coarsens the manifested resolution. However, for undesired spurious signals, a residual chirp is often advantageous because it spreads the energy and thereby diminishes its peak value. In either case, a good understanding of the effects of a residual LFM chirp on a SAR Impulse Response (IPR) is required to facilitate system analysis and design. This report presents an analysis of the effects of a residual chirp on the IPR. As reference, there is a rich body of publications on various aspects of LFM chirps. A quick search reveals a plethora of articles, going back to the early 1950s. We mention here purely as trivia one of the earlier analysis papers on this waveform by Klauder, et al.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

Description: The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Target Detection in SAR Images Based on a Level Set Approach

Description: This paper introduces a new framework for point target detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We focus on the task of locating reflective small regions using alevel set based algorithm. Unlike most of the approaches in image segmentation, we address an algorithm which incorporates speckle statistics instead of empirical parameters and also discards speckle filtering. The curve evolves according to speckle statistics, initially propagating with a maximum upward velocity in homogeneous areas. Our approach is validated by a series of tests on synthetic and real SAR images and compared with three other segmentation algorithms, demonstrating that it configures a novel and efficient method for target detection purpose.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Marques, Regis C.P.; Medeiros, Fatima N.S. & Ushizima, Daniela M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

Description: The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.
Date: January 30, 2005
Creator: Widener, KB & Johnson, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.

Description: Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

Description: Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Doerry, Armin Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging

Description: This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.
Date: May 22, 2010
Creator: Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P. & Oliveira, I.N.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra

Description: Understanding the onset of coalescence in warm clouds is key in our effort to improve cloud representation in numerical models. Coalescence acts at small scales, and its study requires detailed high-resolution dynamical and microphysical measurements from a comprehensive suite of instruments over a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., aerosol loading). The first AMF is currently in its second year of a two-year deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores, offering the opportunity to collect a long data set from a stable land-based platform in a marine stratocumulus regime. In this study, recorded WACR Doppler spectra are used to characterize the properties of Doppler spectra from warm clouds with and without drizzle, and from drizzle only, in an effort to observe the transition (onset) to precipitation in clouds. A retrieval technique that decomposes observed Doppler spectra into their cloud and/or drizzle components is applied in order to quantify drizzle growth.
Date: March 15, 2010
Creator: Luke, E.; Remillard, J. & Kollias, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of the AN/SPS-1 Radar Antenna in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

Description: Tests have been conducted to determine the drive-motor torque and the static force and moment characteristics of the AN/SPS-1 radar antenna. Shifting the longitudinal position of the antenna had very little effect on the drive-motor torque, which reached a maximum value expressed in terms of dynamic pressure (T/q)(sub max) of 1.15 at an azimuth angle of 245 deg. The maximum observed values of rolling, pitching, and yawing moments in terms of dynamic pressure are -29.0, 66.6, and 13.4, respectively.
Date: 1948
Creator: May, Ralph W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of mine collapses, explosions and earthquakes using INSAR: a preliminary investigation

Description: Interferograms constmcted from satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar images have the capability of mapping sub-cm ground surface deformation over areas on the order of 100 x 100 km with a spatial resolution on the order of 10 meters. We investigate the utility of synthetic aperture radar interferomehy (InSAR) used in conjunction with regional seismic methods in detecting and discriminating different types of seismic events in the context of special event analysis for the CTBT. For this initial study, we carried out elastic dislocation modeling of underground explosions, mine collapses and small (M<5.5) shallow earthquakes to produce synthetic interferograms and then analyzed satellite radar data for a large mine collapse. The synthetic modeling shows that, for a given magnitude each type of event produces a distinctive pattern of ground deformation that can be recognized in, and recovered from, the corresponding interferogram. These diagnostic characteristics include not only differences in the polarities of surface displacements but also differences in displacement amplitudes from the different sources. The technique is especially sensitive to source depth, a parameter that is crucial in discriminating earthquakes from the other event types but is often very poorly constrained by regional seismic data alone. The ERS radar data analyzed is from a M<sub>L</sub> 5.2 seismic event that occurred in southwestern Wyoming on February 3,1995. Although seismic data from the event have some characteristics of an underground explosion, based on seismological and geodetic data it has been identified as being caused by a large underground collapse in the Solvay Mine. Several pairs of before-collapse and after-collapse radar images were phase processed to obtain interferograms. The minimum time separation for a before-collapse and after-collapse pair was 548 days. Even with this long time separation, phase coherence between the image pairs was acceptable and a deformation map was successfully obtained. Two images, separated ...
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Foxall, B; Sweeney, J J & Walter, W R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

Description: The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use radar methods to obtain information about moisture content in the vadose zone. In our research we will focus on two specific aspects of the link between radar images and moisture content. The first aspect or question we address is: Can we use a measure of the dielectric constant of a volume of the subsurface to determine the moisture content of that volume? The second question we address is involved specifically with the issue of spatial heterogeneity. Rather than using radar data to get estimates of moisture content at specific locations, can we use the radar data to directly obtain information about the way in which the level of moisture content varies spatially?
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Knight, Rosemary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Radar Methods to Determine Moisture Content in the Vadose Zone

Description: Moisture content is a critical parameter affecting both liquid-phase and vapor-phase contaminant transport in the vadose zone. The objective of our three-year research project is to determine the optimal way to use radar methods as a non-invasive means of determining in situ moisture content.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Knight, Rosemary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department