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Aperture limitations for 2nd generation Nb3Sn LHC IR quadrupoles

Description: One of the straightforward ways towards the higher luminosity in the LHC is a replacement of the present 70-mm NbTi quadrupoles with Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles which would provide the same field gradient but in a larger aperture. Conceptual designs of such quadrupoles with 90 mm aperture have been developed and studied. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of increasing the aperture of Nb{sub 3}Sn low-beta quadrupoles for a LHC luminosity upgrade up to 110 mm.
Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: Zlobin, Alexander V.; Kashikhin, Vadim V. & Strait, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

Description: We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.
Date: January 20, 2004
Creator: Wolski, Andrzej & Zimmermann, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficient computation of matched solutions of the KV envelopeequation for periodic focusing lattices

Description: A new iterative method is developed to numerically calculate the periodic, matched beam envelope solution of the coupled Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equations describing the transverse evolution of a beam in a periodic, linear focusing lattice of arbitrary complexity. Implementation of the method is straightforward. It is highly convergent and can be applied to all usual parameterizations of the matched envelope solutions. The method is applicable to all classes of linear focusing lattices without skew couplings, and also applies to parameters where the matched beam envelope is strongly unstable. Example applications are presented for periodic solenoidal and quadrupole focusing lattices. Convergence properties are summarized over a wide range of system parameters.
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Lund, Steven M.; Chilton, Sven H. & Lee, Edward P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic component calibration and error diagnostics for model-based accelerator control. Phase I final report

Description: Phase I work studied the feasibility of developing software for automatic component calibration and error correction in beamline optics models. A prototype application was developed that corrects quadrupole field strength errors in beamline models.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Stern, Dr. Carl & Lee, Dr. Martin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steering magnet design for a limited space

Description: We compare two extreme designs of steering magnets. The first one is a very thin steering magnet design which occupies only 6 mm in length and can be additionally installed as needed. The other is realized by applying extra coil windings to a quadrupole magnet and does not consume any length. The properties and the features of these steering magnets are discussed.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Okamura,M.; Fite, J.; Lodestro, V.; Raparia, D. & Ritter, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite Element Model of Training in the superconducting quadrupole magnet SQ02

Description: This paper describes the use of 3D finite element models to study training in superconducting magnets. The simulations are used to examine coil displacements when the electromagnetic forces are cycled, and compute the frictional energy released during conductor motion with the resulting temperature rise. A computed training curve is then presented and discussed. The results from the numerical computations are compared with test results of the Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet SQ02.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Caspi, Shlomo & Ferracin, Paolo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MULTIOBJECTIVE DYNAMIC APERTURE OPTIMIZATION AT NSLS-II

Description: In this paper we present a multiobjective approach to the dynamic aperture (DA) optimization. Taking the NSLS-II lattice as an example, we have used both sextupoles and quadrupoles as tuning variables to optimize both on-momentum and off-momentum DA. The geometric and chromatic sextupoles are used for nonlinear properties while the tunes are independently varied by quadrupoles. The dispersion and emittance are fixed during tunes variation. The algorithms, procedures, performances and results of our optimization of DA will be discussed and they are found to be robust, general and easy to apply to similar problems.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Guo, W. & Krinsky, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Brown-Servranckx matching transformer for simultaneous RFQ to DTL H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} matching

Description: The issue involved in simultaneous matching of H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams between an RFQ and DTL lies in the fact that both beams experience the same electric-field forces at a given position in the RFQ. Hence, the two beams are focused to the same correlation. However, matching to a DTL requires correlation of the opposite sign. The Brown-Servranckx quarter-wave ({lambda}/4) matching transformer system, which requires four quadrupoles, provides a method to simultaneously match H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams between an RFQ and a DTL. The method requires the use of a special RFQ section to obtain the Twiss parameter conditions {beta}{sup x}={beta}{sup y} and {alpha}{sub x}={alpha}{sub y}=0 at the exit of the RFQ. This matching between the RFQ and DTL is described.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Wadlinger, E.A. & Garnett, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alignment and steering scenarios for the APT linac

Description: The Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) requires a very high proton beam current (100 mA cw). Requirement for hands-on maintenance limits the beam spill to less than 0.2 nA/m along most of the linac. To achieve this, it is important to understand the effects of fabrication, installation and operational errors, establish realistic tolerances, and develop techniques for mitigating their consequences. A new code, PARTREX, statistically evaluates the effects of alignment, quadrupole field, and rf phase and amplitude errors in the linac. This paper reviews the effects of quadrupole misalignments and present two steering algorithms that minimize the potential for particle loss from the beam halo. These algorithms were tested on the 8-to-20 MeV portion of the APT linac.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Stovall, J.E.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Takeda, H.; Wood, R.L.; Young, L.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam-Based Solenoid Compensation for the PEP-II

Description: Commissioning the compensation system of the solenoid in the BaBar detector presents a challenging problem due to the complexity of the system, which uses twelve normal quadrupoles and twelve skew quadrupoles in each ring. The setting of these skew quadrupoles needs to be readjusted according to the machine optical parameters since the machines always have some unknown errors. In this paper, we will describe a beam based method to match the coupling and optics in the interaction region to compensate for the optical effects due to the solenoid. The method has been successfully used to find the wrong polarities and the wrong scaling factor of the skew quadrupoles in the early stage of the commissioning. It is being refined to set the skew quadrupoles in the machines in order to reduce the beam size at the interaction point and improve the luminosity of PEP-II.
Date: August 26, 1999
Creator: Cai, Yunhai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam-Based Solenoid Compensation for the PEP-II

Description: Commissioning the compensation system of the solenoid in the BaBar detector presents a challenging problem due to the complexity of the system, which uses twelve normal quadrupoles and twelve skew quadrupoles in each ring. The setting of these skew quadrupoles needs to be readjusted according to the machine optical parameters since the machines always have some unknown errors. In this paper, we will describe a beam based method to match the coupling and optics in the interaction region to compensate for the optical effects due to the solenoid. The method has been successfully used to find the wrong polarities and the wrong scaling factor of the skew quadrupoles in the early stage of the commissioning. It is being refined to set the skew quadrupoles in the machines in order to reduce the beam size at the interaction point and improve the luminosity of PEP-II.
Date: August 26, 1999
Creator: Cai, Yunhai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of magnetic measurements of short model quadrupoles for the LHC low-b insertions

Description: The first two short models of the MQXB quadrupole magnets for the LHC interaction regions have been built and tested at Fermilab. In this paper we present the magnetic field measurement results and compare them with expectations based on as-built dimensional parameters and with a preliminary table of field quality requirements.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Bossert, R. & others, and
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An insertion to eliminate horizontal temperature of high energy electron beam

Description: High energy electron cooling with a circulated electron bunch could significantly increase the luminosity of hadron colliders. One of the significant obstacles is high horizontal temperature of electron bunches, suppressing dramatically calculated cooling rates. Recently, a transformation of betatron coordinates and angles for elimination of the radial temperature was found. In our paper, we present a simple scheme to make up this transformation by thin quadruples, drifts and a solenoid.
Date: March 16, 1998
Creator: Burov, A.V. & Danilov, V.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature quench performance of Fermilab Low-{Beta} insertion quadrupoles

Description: The recently revived superconducting magnet program at Fermilab is currently focused on the development of high gradient quadrupoles for possible use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions at CERN. In order to provide input for the new quadrupole design which will operate in superfluid helium, we have tested a Fermilab Tevatron low-{beta} quadrupole cold mass and compared its low temperature performance to a newly assembled heavily instrumented version which was mechanically modified to take advantage of the gain in critical current.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Bossert, R.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R. & Collaboration, LHC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NuTeV SSQT performance

Description: The NuTeV experiment (E815) took data during the 1996-1997 Fermilab fixed target run. The experiment used the sign-selected-quadrupole- train (SSQT) in its neutrino beamline to choose either a neutrino or an anti- neutrino beam. This note summarizes the performance of the SSQT, as measured by the beamline monitoring devices, the observed {nu}{sub {mu}} and {anti {nu}}{sub {mu}} fluxes, and the upper limit on the wrong sign neutrino contamination.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Yu, J. & NuTeV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compensation of dogleg effect in Fermilab Booster

Description: The edge focusing of dogleg magnets in Fermilab Booster has been causing severe distortion to the horizontal linear optics. The doglegs are vertical rectangular bends, therefore the vertical edge focusing is canceled by body focusing and the overall effect is focusing in the horizontal plane. The maximum horizontal beta function is changed from 33.7m to 46.9m and maximum dispersion from 3.19m to 6.14m. Beam size increases accordingly. This is believed to be one of the major reasons of beam loss. In this technote we demonstrate that this effect can be effectively corrected with Booster's quadrupole correctors in short straight sections (QS). There are 24 QS correctors which can alter horizontal linear optics with negligible perturbation to the vertical plane. The currents of correctors are determined by harmonic compensation, i.e., cancellation of dogleg's harmonics that are responsible for the distortion with that of QS correctors. By considering a few leading harmonics, the ideal lattice can be partly restored. For the current dogleg layout, maximum {beta}{sub x} is reduced to 40.6m and maximum D{sub x} is reduced to 4.19m. This scheme can be useful after the dogleg in section No.3 is repositioned. In this case it can bring {beta}{sub x} from 40.9m down to 37.7m, D{sub x} from 4.57m to 4.01m.
Date: October 6, 2003
Creator: Huang, Xiaobiao & Ohnuma, Sho
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction magnets for the Fermilab Recycler Ring

Description: In the commissioning of the Fermilab Recycler ring the need for higher order corrector magnets in the regions near beam transfers was discovered. Three types of permanent magnet skew quadrupoles, and two types of permanent magnet sextupoles were designed and built. This paper describes the need for these magnets, the design, assembly, and magnetic measurements.
Date: May 27, 2003
Creator: al., James T Volk et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design study of Nb3Sn low-beta quadrupoles for 2nd generation LHC IRs

Description: Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles based on the Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor, are being developed at Fermilab for possible 2nd generation IRs with the similar optics as in the current low-beta insertions. Magnet designs and results of magnetic, mechanical, thermal and quench protection analysis for these magnets are presented and discussed.
Date: October 22, 2002
Creator: al., Alexander V Zlobin et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a high gradient quadrupole for the LHC Interaction Regions

Description: A collaboration of Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory is engaged in the design of a high gradient quadrupole suitable for use in the LHC interaction regions. The cold iron design incorporates a two-layer, cos(2{theta}) coil geometry with a 70 mm aperture operating in superfluid helium. This paper summarizes the progress on a magnetic, mechanical and thermal design that meets the requirements of maximum gradient above 250 T/m, high field quality and provision for adequate cooling in a high radiation environment.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Bossert, R.; Feher, S. & Gourlay, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic field strength and shape measurements of the Fermilab main injector quadrupoles

Description: All of the new quadrupoles for the Fermilab Main Injector ring have been built and measured. The magnets are 2.95 m and 2.54 m in length with a 41.7 mm bore. In operation, the magnets run from 1.61 T/m at 8. 9 GeV/c to 15.7 T/m at 120 GeV/c and 19.6 T/m at 150 GeV/c. These points correspond to injection, Main Injector fixed target physics and antiproton production, and extraction for transfer to the Tevatron. Good field uniformity is required to ensure a stable beam over the whole acceleration cycle. A significant octupole is included to assist in resonant extraction. The performance of these quadrupoles, in both integrated strength and field uniformity, is presented. All magnets produced meet the accelerator requirements.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Harding, D.J.; Brown, B.C. & DiMarco, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department