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Improving the Long-term Performance of PVC Compositions

Description: PVC are extensively applied in many fields, such as cables, pipes, vehicles, shoes, toys and infusion bags. Generally, plasticizers are blended with PVC to improve the ability of process in industrial production; however, the toxic plasticizers will gradually migrate to the surface of products and such a leakage results in brittleness of plasticized PVC and environmental pollution. In other words, humans are frequently exposed to the potential risks. According to previous researches, cross-linked PVC was proved that it was able to hinder the migration of plasticizer. Thus, in this research, we selected some commercially used cross-linking agents and employed six different tests based on mechanical, tribological and microscopy analysis in order to seek the best solution against plasticizer migration. Thus, we expected to develop a cross-linked flexible PVC which performed improved long-term performance and extended lifetime.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Yang, Yu Chia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Preventing Thermal Degradation of Pvc Insulation by Mixtures of Cross-Linking Agents and Antioxidants

Description: Poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) wire and cable insulation has poor thermal stability, causing the plasticizer to separate from the PVC chain and produce an oily residue, lowering the tensile elongation at break and thus increasing brittleness. We have added 4 wt.% of three different types of cross-linking agents and antioxidants, as well as mixtures of both, to improve the thermal stability of the plasticizer and tensile properties of PVC after thermal exposure. We performed tensile tests, tribological tests, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and water absorption determination before and after thermal exposure at 136 ℃ for 1 week. After adding the agents, elongation at break increased by 10 to 20 % while the wear rate and water absorption were lower than for the control sample. Less voids are seen in the SEM images after adding these two kinds of agents. The thermal resistance of the PVC cable insulation is best enhanced by combinations of cross-linking agents and antioxidants.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Kim, Taehwan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Recycling of PVC and XLPE for High Impact Resistance in Spool Development

Description: My work focuses on taking waste wire-grade PVC = poly(vinyl chloride) and waste XLPE = cross-linked polyethylene and recycle them into small wire/cable spool technology in order to reduce waste cost and reduce cost of spool production. The PVC and XLPE were provided by Encore Wire Corp. of McKinney, TX; they have also defined the standard to which I am comparing my results. The end goal is to incorporate as much PVC and XLPE into the spools while maintaining material toughness, impact resistance, as well as cost-effectiveness in the implementation of the waste materials. The work has been divided into two primary sections, the first is focused on improving material strength through the addition of ceramic fillers. The second section is focused on adding PVC and XLPE into a stronger and highly cohesive polymer matrix and optimizing the concentration of the waste products. Since XLPE is non-polar while PVC is strongly polar, compatibilizers such as CPE (chlorinated polyethylene) and MA-DCP (maleic anhydride with dicumyl peroxide) were used to improve interactions between polar and non-polar constituents. Testing involved the tensile mechanical properties, tribology and thermal properties, namely dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and evaluation of thermal degradation by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Combining PVC and XLPE together is not economically feasible with current compatiblizers. At the same time, introduction of PVC waste or XLPE waste with sufficient properties of the resulting composites is doable.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Granowski, Gregory A
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe burst problems :Vasquez residence system inspection.

Description: This report documents the investigation regarding the failure of CPVC piping that was used to connect a solar hot water system to standard plumbing in a home. Details of the failure are described along with numerous pictures and diagrams. A potential failure mechanism is described and recommendations are outlined to prevent such a failure.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Black, Billy D.; Menicucci, David F. & Harrison, John (Florida Solar Energy Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A sensor array system for monitoring moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil

Description: To facilitate investigations of moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil, we have developed a technique to qualitatively monitorpatterns of saturation changes. Field results suggest that this device,the sensor array system (SAS), is suitable for determining changes inrelative wetness along vertical soil profiles. The performance of theseprobes was compared with that of the time domain reflectometry (TDR)technique under controlled and field conditions. Measurements from bothtechniques suggest that by obtaining data at high spatial and temporalresolution, the SAS technique was effective in determining patterns ofsaturation changes along a soil profile. In addition, hardware used inthe SAS technique was significantly cheaper than the TDR system, and thesensor arrays were much easier to install along a soilprofile.
Date: May 15, 2007
Creator: Salve, R. & Cook, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polyvinyl chloride plastics in municipal solid waste combustion. Impact upon dioxin emissions: A synthesis of views

Description: This report examines the issue of whether the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics content of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a significant contributor to emissions of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) that are associated with MSW combustion. Indications based on a consideration of this issue are developed through a synthesis of available information. While there is convincing experimental evidence that various conditions can cause production of dioxins when PVC is thermally treated, a fundamental issue that remains to be solved is how these findings relate to operating conditions that are characteristic of well designed, maintained and operated MSW combustion facilities, equipped with modern air pollution controls. These findings largely have been derived from laboratory or pilot scale experimentation and from full-scale studies that have carried out at facilities of varying design and purpose.
Date: April 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

Description: Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.
Date: August 18, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

Description: Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S. & Krause, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The corrosion effect of ozonated seawater solution on titanium in polymer generated crevice environments

Description: Two different tests were designed to evaluate the reaction of various polymers and grade-2 titanium in ozonated seawater in conjunction with a comparative analysis in an aerated seawater solution. The first was a weight loss test measuring the weight change of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene and Teflon{trademark} in both ozonated and aerated artificial seawater baths. The second test was designed to induce crevice corrosion on the titanium test samples using various crevice generating materials in both ozonated and aerated solutions. The materials used to create the crevices were grade-2 titanium washers, PVC, Polyethylene, Saran and Teflon{trademark}. The weight loss test showed that all three polymers lost weight in the ozonated bath. The results of the titanium washer crevice test provided no indication of corrosion or surface discoloration in either the ozonated or aerated solutions. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis found no fluorine, chlorine or other corrosion product. The PVC samples in the aerated bath also showed no signs of corrosion, but the PVC samples in the ozonated tank had light brown rings of surface discoloration. One of the ozonated PVC samples did show evidence of chlorine in the corrosion product. The outer circumference of the ozonated PVC washers exhibited the same type bleaching effect as in the weight loss samples, but the whitening of these samples were more pronounced. The polyethylene samples under aeration showed no discoloration or presence of fluorine or chlorine. The polyethylene crevice samples in the ozonated solution all exhibited the distinct brilliant blue color of titanium oxide. Fluorine was found in the corrosion product on only one of the samples. Chlorine was found on the surface of one of the other corrosion coupons. The results of the Teflon{trademark} crevice samples substantiated the previous Rensselaer study.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Leveillee, S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immersible solar heater for fluids

Description: An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Hazen, T.C. & Fliermans, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Poykala, J. A., Jr.; Daniels, E. J. & Arman, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Position paper Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant storage of uranium in plastics

Description: As a result of the end of the Cold War, the United States nuclear weapon stockpile is being reduced from approximately 20,000 warheads to fewer than 10,000 by the end of the century. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is the Department of Energy (DOE) site charged with the responsibility of providing safe, secure storage for the uranium recovered from these weapons. In addition to weapons material, Y-12 has traditionally processed and stored uranium from nonweapon programs and presumably will continue to do so. The purpose of this document is to evaluate the suitability of plastics for use in the containment of uranium.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Duerksen, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PVC Pipe Samplers for Hylid Frogs: A Cautionary Note

Description: When such is available, many hylid frogs use artificial refugia, and this trait is frequently used as a basis for sampling populations of these frogs. Artificial refugia are any manmade objects that the animals may use for shelter (e.g. bird houses, bamboo stakes, lengths of pipe, etc.). By choosing refugia that the animals will readily enter and from which they may be easily removed, sampling can be directed toward particular species or size classes. Several variables have been considered when examining bias in sampling using these refugia. Among these variables are inside diameter of the pipes, pipe length, associated vegetation and height above ground. Our observations were not intended as an evaluation of polyvinyl chloride pipe traps as a sampling technique but rather were part of a study examining invertebrate and amphibian faunas associated with slope wetlands. Slope wetlands are wetlands formed where soil contours favor outcropping of water to the surface to form pools or channels often connected to streams. Despite the apparently small amount of appropriate data in this study, there are few enough quantified or semi-quantified data on this topic to be worth a cautionary note.
Date: April 7, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earth Solids and Dynamic Nonlinear Elasticity

Description: The authors` intention is to describe several manifestations of nonlinear behavior in rock. Nonlinear response may manifest itself in a variety of manners, including a nonlinear stress-strain relation, nonlinear attenuation, harmonic generation, resonant peak shift and slow dynamics, all of which are related. The authors have ample evidence that the responsible mechanism for nonlinear response [to first order] is the presence of compliant features and the influence of fluid. They define compliant features as those features that are the weakest in the rock, e.g., grain-to-grain contacts, low aspect ratio cracks, joints, etc. In addition, there may be other mechanisms responsible as yet unidentified. In the following, the authors emphasize the robust nature of observations by illustrating several experimental examples. They do not review the related theoretical framework. Finally, they do not present nonlinear parameters derived from these experiments as the purpose in this paper is to illustrate rather than quantify nonlinear response.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Johnson, Paul A. & Van Den Abeele, Koen E.-A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

Description: The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 ...
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D. & Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

Description: This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small ...
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.
Date: March 12, 2010
Creator: DL, HALGREN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

Description: A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CIST....CORRTEX interferometer simulation test

Description: Testing was performed in order to validate and cross calibrate an RF interferometer and the crush threshold of cable. Nitromethane was exploded (inside of PVC pipe). The explosion was used to crush the interferometer sensor cables which had been placed inside and outside the pipe. Results are described.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Heinle, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay and synthetic liners. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

Description: This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4, which was equipped with the integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system installed under the Clean Coal Technology Program. The investigation emphasized the potential impact of clean coal technology materials (sodium and calcium injection systems and urea injection) on the permeability and stability characteristics of clay liner materials and the stability of synthetic liner materials. Flexible-wall permeameters were used to determine the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of the clay liner materials affected by various compactive conditions. Tests were conducted using the waste materials overlying the clay liner materials through wet/dry cycles, freeze/thaw cycles, and over 120-day periods. The impact of CCT materials on the characteristics of the clay liner materials studied in this project was minimal. The HC measurements of the waste/clay liner systems were similar to those of the water/clay liner systems. HC decreased for clay liners compacted at moisture levels slightly higher than optimum (standard Procter) and increased for liners compacted at moisture levels lower than optimum (standard Procter). Although some swelling was evident in the sodium materials, the sludge materials did not have a negative impact on the integrity of the liners over 120-day tests. Wet/dry cycles tended to result in lower HC, while freeze/thaw cycles substantially increased HC for the liners tested.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Brown, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

Description: This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Stowell, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department