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The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: "An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas" (p. 73).
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.
Date: August 12, 1945
Creator: Heinicke, Orville H. & Vandeman, Jack E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Rocket, Ramjet, Turbojet Engines for Supersonic Propulsion of Long-Range Missiles 2: Rocket Missile Performance

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation of the theoretical performance of a two-stage ballistic rocket missile with a centerbody and two parallel boosters for JP4-oxygen and ammonia-fluorine propellants. The missile using the ammonia-fluorine propellant weighs about one-half as much as a missile using JP4-oxygen. Results regarding the optimum missile and effect of variation of design parameters are provided.
Date: October 11, 1954
Creator: Huff, Vearl N. & Kerrebrock, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection Principles for Liquid Oxygen and Heptane Using Nine-Element Injectors in an 1800-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engine

Description: Memorandum presenting a study of six nine-element injectors for the liquid-oxygen-heptane propellant system in an 1800-pound-thrust rocket engine. The characteristic velocities for comparable injector types were about the same as those obtained from the two-element study. The level of performance was generally higher for the nine-element injectors.
Date: July 18, 1957
Creator: Neu, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine as a rocket propellant for a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute

Description: Report presenting theoretical rocket performance for frozen and equilibrium composition during expansion for the propellant combination of liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine at a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute and several pressure ratios and oxidant-fuel ratios. The parameters included were specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature, molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, isentropic exponent, viscosity, and thermal conductivity.
Date: January 25, 1957
Creator: Fortini, Anthony & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of lithium and fluorine as a rocket propellant

Description: Theoretical performance for liquid lithium and liquid fluorine as a rocket propellant was calculated with assumptions both of equilibrium and frozen composition during expansion. Parameters included were specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature, composition, mean molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, and ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area. For chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute and expansion to 1 atmosphere, the maximum equilibrium specific impulse calculated was 335.5 pound-seconds per pound. The effect of ionization on calculated performance was shown to be negligible by comparison of values of various parameters calculated both with and without ionized products of combustion.
Date: May 10, 1951
Creator: Gordon, Sanford & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of mixtures of liquid ammonia and hydrazine as fuel with liquid fluorine as oxidant for rocket engines

Description: Report presenting theoretical values of rocket performance parameters for two mixtures of liquid ammonia and hydrazine as fuels with liquid fluorine as oxidant. The parameters included were specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature, equilibrium composition, mean molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, coefficient of viscosity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity.
Date: July 29, 1953
Creator: Gordon, Sanford & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of JP-4 fuel with a 70-30 mixture of fluorine and oxygen as a rocket propellant 2: Equilibrium composition

Description: Data were calculated for equivalence ratios of 1 to 4, chamber pressures of 300 and 600 pounds per square inch absolute, and pressure ratios of 1 to 1500. Parameters included are specific impulse, combustion and exit temperatures, molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, isentropic exponent, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. A correlation is given which permits determination of performance for a wide range of chamber pressures. A method for obtaining specific impulse of JP-4 fuel with OF2 and O3-F2 mixtures is given.
Date: October 2, 1956
Creator: Gordon, Sanford & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical rocket performance of JP-4 fuel with mixtures of liquid ozone and fluorine

Description: Data were estimated by means of a heat correction equation using data for JP-4 fuel with mixtures of oxygen and flourine. The estimated data were checked for several cases by direct calculations. The difference in specific impulse between the estimated and directly calculated values was from 0.2 to 0.8 pound-second per pound. The maximum value of specific impulse was 334.9 pound-seconds per pound for a combustion-chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute and an exit pressure of 1 atmosphere.
Date: January 28, 1957
Creator: Huff, Vearl N. & Gordon, Sanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine as a rocket propellant

Description: Theoretical values of performance parameters for liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine as a rocket propellant were calculated on the assumption of equilibrium composition during the expansion process for a wide range of fuel-oxidant and expansion ratios. The parameters included were specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature, equilibrium composition, mean molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ration of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, coefficient of viscosity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity. The maximum value of specific impulse was 364.6 pound-seconds per pound for a chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute (20.41 atm) and an exit pressure of 1 atmosphere.
Date: February 6, 1953
Creator: Gordon, Sanford & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of liquid ammonia, hydrazine and mixture of liquid ammonia and hydrazine as fuels with liquid oxygen biflouride as oxidant for rocket engines 1: mixture of liquid ammonia and hydrazine

Description: Theoretical performance for mixture of 36.3 percent liquid ammonia and 63.7 percent hydrazine with liquid oxygen bifluoride as rocket propellant was calculated on assumption of equilibrium composition during expansion for a wide range of fuel-oxidant and expansios ratios. Parameters included were specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle exit temperature, composition mean molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust and ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area. For chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute and expansion to 1 atmosphere, maximum specific impulse was 295.8 pound-seconds per pound. Five percent by weight of water in the hydrazine lowered specific impulse from about one to three units over a wide range of weight-percent fuel.
Date: February 20, 1952
Creator: Huff, Vearl N. & Gordon, Sanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical performance of some rocket propellants containing hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen

Description: From Summary: "Theoretical performance data including nozzle-exit temperature, specific impulse, volume specific impulse and composition, temperature, and mean molecular weight of reaction products based on frozen equilibrium and isentropic expansion are presented for 13 propellant combinations at reaction pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute and expansion ratio of 20.4. On basis of maximum specific impulse alone, five fuels had the following order for any given oxidant: liquid hydrogen, hydrazine, liquid ammonia, and either hydrazine hydrate or hydroxylamine. Three oxidants with a given fuel had the following order: liquid ozone, liquid oxygen, and 100-percent hydrogen peroxide."
Date: May 26, 1948
Creator: Miller, Riley O. & Ordin, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Appraisal of Ferrocene as an Igniting Agent for JP-4 Fuel and Fuming Nitric Acid

Description: From Summary: "A preliminary experimental study was made of the properties of ferrocene as a solute and as a suspension in JP-4 fuel, and of the ignition delays of ferrocene - JP-4 mixture with A.F. specification 14104 white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). The investigation covered concentrations of 4 to 10 percent by weight ferrocene, and a temperature range of -40 to 80 F. The solubility of ferrocene in JP-4 is about 5 percent at room temperature and about 1 percent (extrapolated) at -80 F. The solubility is increased somewhat by increased aromatics content. Undissolved ferrocene particles of 100 mesh and smaller settle rapidly in JP-4."
Date: August 25, 1953
Creator: Miller, Riley O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbojet Performance and Operation at High Altitudes With Hydrogen and JP-4 Fuels

Description: An investigation of the effect of extremely high altitude operation on the performance and operating characteristics of two turbojet engines using gaseous hydrogen and JP-4 fuels. At extremely high altitude conditions, engine performance was significantly poorer than at low altitudes. The majority of performance losses were due to the compressor because of low Reynolds number and the combustor because of low combustion efficiency.
Date: August 7, 1956
Creator: Fleming, W. A.; Kaufman, H. R.; Harp, J. L., Jr. & Chelko, L. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Liquid Fluorine-Liquid Ammonia Propellant Combination in a 100-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engine

Description: Report presenting the performance of the liquid fluorine-liquid ammonia propellant combination investigated in 100-pound-thrust, water-cooled engines operating at a chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute. Several impinging-jet injectors were evaluated in chambers of characteristic length equal to 50 inches. Results regarding specific impulse, characteristic velocity, thrust coefficient, heat rejection, and operational notes are provided.
Date: July 3, 1953
Creator: Rothenberg, Edward A. & Douglass, Howard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a Single Fuel-Vaporizing Combustor With Six Injectors Adapted for Gaseous Hydrogen

Description: Report presenting an investigation in a single tubular combustor to determine the effectiveness of hydrogen fuel using an annular fuel-vaporizing combustor in a full-scale turbojet engine. Six different fuel-injector designs were investigated. Results regarding the ignition, combustion efficiency, combustor pressure loss, stability of combustion, and best configuration are provided.
Date: November 30, 1955
Creator: Wear, Jerrold D. & Smith, Arthur L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rocket Thrust Variation With Foamed Liquid Propellants

Description: An analysis is presented on a method for varying rocket thrust by varying the bulk density of the propellants. This density variation was accomplished by uniformly dispersing an inert, insoluble gas in the liquid propellants. Only qualitative agreement with theory was obtained from preliminary experiments with a 1000-pound-thrust ammonia - nitric acid rocket engine; the required experimental gas-flow rates were two to six times greater than those predicted by theory. It was demonstrated, however, that this method of rocket-thrust variation is feasible.
Date: February 26, 1957
Creator: Morrell, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ballistic-Missile Base Heating with Operating Rocket

Description: "A rocket of the 1000-pound-thrust class using liquid oxygen and JP-4 fuel as propellant was installed in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot tunnel to permit a controlled study of some of the factors affecting the heating of a rocket-missile base. Temperatures measured in the base region are presented from findings of three motor extension lengths relative to the base. Data are also presented for two combustion efficiency levels in the rocket motor" (p. 1).
Date: September 23, 1958
Creator: Nettles, J. Cary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Rocket Research

Description: "A method of measuring instantaneous flow rates of liquid propellants for rocket research is presented. The instrument investigated utilizes the principle of electromagnetic induction. An electromagnetic flowmeter was built, investigated, and satisfactorily placed in service to measure the rate of flow of an oxidant into a rocket" (p. 1).
Date: March 6, 1951
Creator: Jaffe, Leonard; Coss, Bert A. & Daykin, Donald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rocket Engine Starting With Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen and Liquid Ammonia by Flow-Line Additives

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation of the starting characteristics of mixed oxides of nitrogen - liquid ammonia rocket engines with light metal additives in the ammonia flow line for ignition. The oxidant consisted of 70 percent by weight nitrogen tetroxide and 30 percent nitric oxide. Results regarding the ignition experiments with 100-pound-thrust engine, 1000-pound-thrust engine experiments, and low-temperature experiments are provided.
Date: August 19, 1953
Creator: Kinney, George R.; Humphrey, Jack C. & Hennings, Glen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Physical Properties of Hi-Cal-2

Description: "As part of the Navy Project Zip to consider various boron-containing materials as possible high-energy fuels, the chemical and physical properties of Hi-Cal-2 prepared by the Callery Chemical Company were evaluated at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Elemental chemical analysis, heat of combustion, vapor pressure and decomposition, freezing point, density, self ignition temperature, flash point, and blow-out velocity were determined for the fuel. Although the precision of measurement of these properties was not equal to that obtained for hydrocarbons, this special release research memorandum was prepared to make the data available as soon as possible" (p. 1).
Date: October 5, 1955
Creator: Spakowski, A. E.; Allen, Harrison, Jr. & Caves, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department