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Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

Description: Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.
Date: August 27, 2004
Creator: Mallinger, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of small-scale flow disturbance on nozzle-burner flames

Description: Laminar-like and brush-like propane-air flames were obtained when wire grids were used as turbulence generators in a 1/2-inch nozzle burner. The laminar-like flames for grid-disturbed flow had a slightly higher burning velocity than "true" laminar flames (no grid used). The brush-like flames were similar to those obtained with pipe turbulent flow. Their burning-velocity dependence on a "flow disturbance" Reynolds number compared favorably with that obtained for pipe turbulent flames. Hot-wire-anemometer equipment was used to measure the flow disturbance intensity in the cold flow with and without the grids in place.
Date: September 1956
Creator: Wong, Edgar L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of pressure and duct geometry on bluff-body flame stabilization

Description: Report presenting blowoff velocities and recirculation-zone lengths of propane-air flames stabilized by cylindrical flameholders measured as a function of pressure, cylinder diameter, fuel-air ratio, and tunnel geometry for a range of Reynolds numbers. Results regarding blowoff velocities, recirculation-zone lengths, critical time, and heat losses from recirculation zone are provided.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Potter, Andrew E., Jr. & Wong, Edgar L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for propane-air mixtures

Description: An investigation was made of the variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for quiescent propane with tube diameter for quiescent propane-air mixtures. Pressure limits were measured in glass tubes of six different inside diameters, with a precise apparatus. Critical diameters for flame propagation were calculated and the effect of pressure was determined. The critical diameters depended on the pressure to the -0.97 power for stoichiometric mixtures. The pressure dependence decreased with decreasing propane concentration. Critical diameters were related to quenching distance, flame speeds, and minimum ignition energy.
Date: December 5, 1951
Creator: Belles, Frank E. & Simon, Dorothy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

Description: Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Cadwallader, Lee C. & Herring, J. Sephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

Description: The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.
Date: August 20, 2005
Creator: Green, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Propane Hydrate Desalting Process

Description: Report that summarizes research on the propane hydrate saline water conversion process. Contains the design of the plant where the testing occurred as well as summaries of the tests.
Date: August 1968
Creator: Williams, V. C.; Roy, C. L.; Smith H., Jr. & Battle, O. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

Description: In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carburetion of Combustible Gas with Butane and Propane-Butane Mixtures with Particular Reference to the Carburetion of Water Gas

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the carburetion of many different fuels. The report pays particular attention to the carburetion of water gas. Carburetion methods and results are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1929
Creator: Odell, William Wallace
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propane: Causes of Price Volatility, Potential Consumer Options, and Opportunities to Improve Consumer Information and Federal Oversight

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "More than 4.6 million residential households in the U.S., many with low incomes, rely on propane to heat their homes. Unfortunately, propane prices have been subject to major price spikes in two of the last three winters. Responding to congressional concern caused by these price spikes, GAO undertook a study to address the (1) factors that affect residential propane price volatility, (2) options available to propane consumers to mitigate price volatility, and (3) federal role in the propane market."
Date: June 27, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

Description: The catalytic properties of Al2O3-supported vanadia with a wide range of VOx surface density (1.4-34.2 V/nm2) and structure were examined for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman spectra showed that vanadia is dispersed predominantly as isolated monovanadate species below {approx}2.3 V/nm2. As surface densities increase, two-dimensional polyvanadates appear (2.3-7.0 V/nm2) along with increasing amounts of V2O5 crystallites at surface densities above 7.0 V/nm2. The rate constant for oxidative dehydrogenation (k1) and its ratio with alkane and alkene combustion (k2/k1 and k3/k1, respectively) were compared for both alkane reactants as a function of vanadia surface density. Propene formation rates (per V-atom) are {approx}8 times higher than ethene formation rates at a given reaction temperature, but the apparent ODH activation energies (E1) are similar for the two reactants and relatively insensitive to vanadia surface density. Ethene and propene formation rates (per V-atom) are strongly influenced by vanadia surface density and reach a maximum value at intermediate surface densities ({approx}8 V/nm2). The ratio of k2/k1 depends weakly on reaction temperature, indicating that activation energies for alkane combustion and ODH reactions are similar. The ratio of k2/k1 is independent of surface density for ethane, but increase slightly with vanadia surface density for propane, suggesting that isolated structures prevalent at low surface densities are slightly more selective for alkane dehydrogenation reactions. The ratio of k3/k1 decreases markedly with increasing reaction temperature for both ethane and propane ODH. Thus, the apparent activation energy for alkene combustion (E3) is much lower than that for alkane dehydrogenation (E1) and the difference between these two activation energies decreases with increasing surface density. The lower alkene selectivities observed at high vanadia surface densities are attributed to an increase in alkene adsorption enthalpies with increasing vanadia surface density. The highest yield of alkene is obtained for catalysts ...
Date: September 11, 2001
Creator: Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T. & Iglesia, Enrique
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

Description: This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Jackson, Scott I & Shepherd, Joseph E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cometabolic bioremediation

Description: Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.
Date: February 15, 2009
Creator: Hazen, Terry C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: The City of Albuquerque Aviation Department began planning for an alternative fuels facility in 1999 and began actively pursuing funding for the project in 2000. The original project scope was intended to provide a fueling station that provided unleaded gasoline, E-85, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane. When the tragedy of 9/11 occurred, all capital projects were put on hold and then reassessed to validate needs and priorities. The alternative fuels station was scaled back to a CNG facility to: (1) Provide fuel for the common shuttle that served the rental car facilities at the airport; (2) Provide a CNG fuel center for use by all levels of government for vehicle fueling; (3) Provide another CNG facility near the interstate to improve the State network for CNG fueling; (4) Provide a backup fueling facility for the University of New Mexico and the City of Albuquerque Transit Department who were also using CNG vehicles; and (5) Provide another fueling facility accessible to the general public.
Date: December 2, 2005
Creator: Hinde, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department