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Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

Description: Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.
Date: August 27, 2004
Creator: Mallinger, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

Description: Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Cadwallader, Lee C. & Herring, J. Sephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-Phase Radiolysis of Propane

Description: Abstract. the direct and inert-gas radiolysis, as well as the vacuum ultra-violet photolysis of CD3CH2CD3, CH3CD2CH3 and C3H2+C3D3 mixtures have been investigated in the presence of radical scavengers. The major conclusions are : (a) at atmospheric pressures, neutral propane decomposition contributes to the observed products although to a lesser extent than parent ion decompositions ; (b) a variation in pressure has a pronounced effect on the fragmentation of the parent ion ; (c) the hydrogen atoms in the ethyl ion are randomized in the direct as well as in the inert-gas sensitized radiolysis ; (d) rearrangement in the parent ion is of minor importance in the radiolysis ; (e) although the formation of propylene is related to the propyl ion, it is not necessarily produced by the neutralization of this ion.
Date: May 31, 1963
Creator: Ausloos, Pierre J.; Lias, Sharon G., 1935- & Sandoval, L. B., (Mrs.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Use of a Torch with Ceramic Materials

Description: This report documents the changes in my work as a ceramic artist over a two-year period, imposed upon, and inspired by, the use of a propane torch on the surface of the clay vessel. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to provide information about this particular tool for methods of survace decoration; (2) to provide information about a subjective thought process directed by properties in this particular tool.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Bradley, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

Description: The catalytic properties of Al2O3-supported vanadia with a wide range of VOx surface density (1.4-34.2 V/nm2) and structure were examined for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman spectra showed that vanadia is dispersed predominantly as isolated monovanadate species below {approx}2.3 V/nm2. As surface densities increase, two-dimensional polyvanadates appear (2.3-7.0 V/nm2) along with increasing amounts of V2O5 crystallites at surface densities above 7.0 V/nm2. The rate constant for oxidative dehydrogenation (k1) and its ratio with alkane and alkene combustion (k2/k1 and k3/k1, respectively) were compared for both alkane reactants as a function of vanadia surface density. Propene formation rates (per V-atom) are {approx}8 times higher than ethene formation rates at a given reaction temperature, but the apparent ODH activation energies (E1) are similar for the two reactants and relatively insensitive to vanadia surface density. Ethene and propene formation rates (per V-atom) are strongly influenced by vanadia surface density and reach a maximum value at intermediate surface densities ({approx}8 V/nm2). The ratio of k2/k1 depends weakly on reaction temperature, indicating that activation energies for alkane combustion and ODH reactions are similar. The ratio of k2/k1 is independent of surface density for ethane, but increase slightly with vanadia surface density for propane, suggesting that isolated structures prevalent at low surface densities are slightly more selective for alkane dehydrogenation reactions. The ratio of k3/k1 decreases markedly with increasing reaction temperature for both ethane and propane ODH. Thus, the apparent activation energy for alkene combustion (E3) is much lower than that for alkane dehydrogenation (E1) and the difference between these two activation energies decreases with increasing surface density. The lower alkene selectivities observed at high vanadia surface densities are attributed to an increase in alkene adsorption enthalpies with increasing vanadia surface density. The highest yield of alkene is obtained for catalysts …
Date: September 11, 2001
Creator: Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T. & Iglesia, Enrique
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burning Velocities of Various Premixed Turbulent Propane Flames on Open Burners

Description: Note presenting the measurement of turbulent burning velocities for premixed propane flames at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The measurements were made for systems of various laminar burning velocities, densities, and viscosities. Experimental results and comparison with previous work are provided.
Date: October 1955
Creator: Wagner, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments on Stability of Bunsen-Burner Flames for Turbulent Flow

Description: "The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner" (p. 1).
Date: 1948
Creator: Bollinger, Lowell M. & Williams, David T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of small-scale flow disturbance on nozzle-burner flames

Description: Laminar-like and brush-like propane-air flames were obtained when wire grids were used as turbulence generators in a 1/2-inch nozzle burner. The laminar-like flames for grid-disturbed flow had a slightly higher burning velocity than "true" laminar flames (no grid used). The brush-like flames were similar to those obtained with pipe turbulent flow. Their burning-velocity dependence on a "flow disturbance" Reynolds number compared favorably with that obtained for pipe turbulent flames. Hot-wire-anemometer equipment was used to measure the flow disturbance intensity in the cold flow with and without the grids in place.
Date: September 1956
Creator: Wong, Edgar L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of pressure and duct geometry on bluff-body flame stabilization

Description: Report presenting blowoff velocities and recirculation-zone lengths of propane-air flames stabilized by cylindrical flameholders measured as a function of pressure, cylinder diameter, fuel-air ratio, and tunnel geometry for a range of Reynolds numbers. Results regarding blowoff velocities, recirculation-zone lengths, critical time, and heat losses from recirculation zone are provided.
Date: September 1958
Creator: Potter, Andrew E., Jr. & Wong, Edgar L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for propane-air mixtures

Description: An investigation was made of the variation of the pressure limits of flame propagation with tube diameter for quiescent propane with tube diameter for quiescent propane-air mixtures. Pressure limits were measured in glass tubes of six different inside diameters, with a precise apparatus. Critical diameters for flame propagation were calculated and the effect of pressure was determined. The critical diameters depended on the pressure to the -0.97 power for stoichiometric mixtures. The pressure dependence decreased with decreasing propane concentration. Critical diameters were related to quenching distance, flame speeds, and minimum ignition energy.
Date: December 5, 1951
Creator: Belles, Frank E. & Simon, Dorothy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carburetion of Combustible Gas with Butane and Propane-Butane Mixtures with Particular Reference to the Carburetion of Water Gas

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the carburetion of many different fuels. The report pays particular attention to the carburetion of water gas. Carburetion methods and results are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: 1929
Creator: Odell, William Wallace
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Propane: Causes of Price Volatility, Potential Consumer Options, and Opportunities to Improve Consumer Information and Federal Oversight

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "More than 4.6 million residential households in the U.S., many with low incomes, rely on propane to heat their homes. Unfortunately, propane prices have been subject to major price spikes in two of the last three winters. Responding to congressional concern caused by these price spikes, GAO undertook a study to address the (1) factors that affect residential propane price volatility, (2) options available to propane consumers to mitigate price volatility, and (3) federal role in the propane market."
Date: June 27, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

Description: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Straub, D. L.; Ferguson, D. H.; Casleton, K. H. & Richards, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Propane Hydrate Desalting Process

Description: Report that summarizes research on the propane hydrate saline water conversion process. Contains the design of the plant where the testing occurred as well as summaries of the tests.
Date: August 1968
Creator: Williams, V. C.; Roy, C. L.; Smith, H., Jr. & Battle, O. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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