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Measurement & Analysis of Productivity Growth: a Synthesis of Thought

Description: Abstract: Productivity is one of the most important factors influencing our economic well-being. Productivity growth is essential to a higher standard of living and is vital to a sound economic and political environment. However, there has been a slowdown in the growth of productivity in the United States since the mid-1960s. This slowdown has caused concern among policy makers and researchers. Accordingly, several questions persist both in policy and academic circles. Why has productivity been slowing? and What can be done to reverse this trend? The purpose of this report is to address broadly the first of these two questions by surveying and synthesizing the vast literature on the measurement and determinants of productivity. This review is intended to be a source document for those interested in the measurement and analysis of productivity growth. The report is divided into five sections. In the first section, the importance of productivity growth on economic activity is discussed. In the second section, the so called "facts" about patterns of measured productivity growth in the United States are presented. In the third section, the methods currently used for calculating productivity indices are summarized. In the fourth section, the literature related to the determinants of the productivity growth are reviewed. Finally, in the last section, some suggestions are made for future work in this area.
Date: September 1983
Creator: Link, Albert N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Test For Structural Change In Productivity: A Look At The Internet

Description: It is said that there is a "productivity paradox" existing in the workplace meaning there are no net benefits from information technology spending. This paper attempts to answer the question as to whether there is a need to account for a change in the growth rate of productivity after the Internet was opened up to commercial use. Using the Chow Test for structural change I concluded that there was indeed a positive change in the growth rate of productivity beginning in the early 1990s that can be associated with increasing Internet usage.
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Thomas, Garvii Lincoln
Partner: UNT Libraries

Faculty Research Productivity at Addis Ababa University

Description: This study explores the research productivity of Addis Ababa University (AAU) faculty. AAU was established in 1950 and is the oldest modern higher educational institution in Ethiopia. Recently AAU took steps to transform itself to become a pre-eminent African research university. One of the characteristics of a research university is the focus on the amount of research conducted by the institution's faculty. Academic institutions measure research productivity primarily based on published work. The purpose of this study was to analyze the research productivity of AAU faculty, and to examine the differential predictive effects of individual and environmental variables on faculty research productivity. This quantitative study used a theoretical framework and instrument, Faculty at Work. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed to Addis AAU faculty in person and 298 questionnaires were returned resulting in a 74.5% response rate. After exclusion of 12 cases with missing information, 286 cases (71.5% response rate) were analyzed. Most of the respondents were men (M = 92.1%, F = 7.9%). The average age of AAU faculty was 44. A hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the ability of six sets of independent variables (sociodemographic, career, self-knowledge, social knowledge, behavior, and environmental response) to predict research productivity (publication output). Results indicated that there are productive researchers at AAU, and the theoretical framework explained 67.6% of the variance in publication output.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Stafford, Mehary T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Different Percentages of Incentive Pay to Base Pay on Work Productivity

Description: This experiment investigated how different percentages of incentive pay affected performance on a number-entering task. It was hypothesized that the critical factor in incentive pay systems was the absolute amount of money that could be earned in an incentive pay paradigm. A counterbalanced single-subject reversal design was employed to examine effects of incentives on performance. Twelve subjects were used in the experiment with three subjects assigned to one of four experimental paradigms. Two of the experimental paradigms incorporated 10% and 100% incentive pay conditions, while the other two experimental paradigms incorporated absolute pay conditions equal to the 10% and 100% incentive pay conditions. Results indicated that similar trends in productivity occurred across subjects in all four experimental paradigms.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Gruenberg, Joel S. (Joel Sanborn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploratory Workshop on the Social Impacts of Robotics: Summary and Issues: A Background Paper

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "contains a summary of the results of the workshop along with copies that were used as starting points for the discussion" (p. iii). The workshop referenced discussed robotics technology and robotics market.
Date: February 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

Description: This report discusses the international beef market and U.S. efforts to regain foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a Canadian-born cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in December 2003.
Date: June 4, 2008
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Specialty Crops: 2008 Farm Bill Issues

Description: This report discusses the provisions for specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, and nursery crops) in the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act). Specialty crops are not eligible for direct support under USDA's farm commodity price and income support programs. Federal policies on trade, conservation, credit, marketing programs, domestic food assistance, and research also all affect the specialty crop sector.
Date: June 19, 2008
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Saving Farm Labor by Harvesting Crops with Live Stock

Description: "Farm labor often may be saved by using livestock to harvest and market part of the crops. By pasturing forage crops, and feeding down grain crops, much labor can be saved. Hay must be secured for winter feeding, and grain for home use and seed, but on many farms a considerable acreage may be turned directly into beef, pork and mutton. Pasturing off the crops also helps to maintain the fertility of the soil without extra labor or expense. The keeping of farm animals furnishes profitable work during the winter when other work is less pressing, and when they require most care. This distributes remunerative labor throughout the year more evenly than otherwise would be possible. This bulletin points out, largely by pictures of actual farm practices, some of the advantages of keeping livestock and of using the hogs, sheep, and beef cattle to help harvest and market farm crops." -- p. 2
Date: 1918
Creator: Drake, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

Description: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.
Date: August 30, 2004
Creator: Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth & Finman, Hodayah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

Description: Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Skalski, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States

Description: This report not only addresses climate change, but also other change in the global environment, including water resources, oceans, atmospheric chemistry, land productivity, and ecological systems that may alter the capacity of Earth to sustain life.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Climate Change Science Program (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horse Slaughter Prevention Bills and Issues

Description: More than 90,000 U.S. horses were slaughtered for human food in 2005, mainly for European and Asian consumers. Congress voted to limit the use of FY2006 appropriated funds for such slaughter, but USDA anticipates that the practice will continue, funded by industry user fees. This report examines the debate, which has focused on the acceptability of horse slaughter, and how to care for and eventually dispose of such horses if they no longer went for human food.
Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical and Statistical Opportunities in Cyber Security

Description: The role of mathematics in a complex system such as the Internet has yet to be deeply explored. In this paper, we summarize some of the important and pressing problems in cyber security from the viewpoint of open science environments. We start by posing the question 'What fundamental problems exist within cyber security research that can be helped by advanced mathematics and statistics'? Our first and most important assumption is that access to real-world data is necessary to understand large and complex systems like the Internet. Our second assumption is that many proposed cyber security solutions could critically damage both the openness and the productivity of scientific research. After examining a range of cyber security problems, we come to the conclusion that the field of cyber security poses a rich set of new and exciting research opportunities for the mathematical and statistical sciences.
Date: March 23, 2009
Creator: Meza, Juan; Campbell, Scott & Bailey, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Description: Report containing a description of recent developments in weather and U. S. policy. as well as an overview of current and expired USDA disaster assistance programs. An appendix reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance and administrative actions by USDA.
Date: July 3, 2013
Creator: Shields, Dennis A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

Description: This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.
Date: June 19, 2006
Creator: Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

Description: Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.
Date: February 7, 2003
Creator: Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott & Current, Caitlin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Oil Recovery from Upper Jurassic Smackover Carbonates through the Application of Advanced Technologies at Womack Hill Oil Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Class II

Description: The principal objectives of this project was to: increase the productivity and profitability of the Womack Hill Field Unit, thereby extending the economic life of this Class II Reservoir and transferring effectively and in a timely manner the knowledge gained and technology developed from this project to producers who are operating other domestic fields with Class II Reservoirs. Efforts for Year 1 of this project has been reservoir characterization, which has included three (3) primary tasks: geoscientific reservoir characterization, petrophysical and engineering property characterization, and microbial characterization.
Date: August 7, 2001
Creator: Mancini, Ernest A.; Cate, David; Blasingame, Thomas; Major, R.P.; Brown, Lewis & Stafford, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

Description: Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial distribution of various plants and animals. These models can be, used to predict the patterns of forest ...
Date: November 1998
Creator: Huston, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

Description: This report outlines current progress towards establishment of the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), presents current and projected funding levels and timelines, and describes policy issues of potential interest to Congress, such as agency coordination, possession of viruses, construction timelines, disposition of the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC), and community safety concerns.
Date: December 14, 2009
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Monke, Jim & Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

Description: This report outlines current progress towards establishment of the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), presents current and projected funding levels and timelines, and describes policy issues of potential interest to Congress, such as agency coordination, possession of viruses, construction timelines, disposition of the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC), and community safety concerns.
Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Monke, Jim & Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

Description: This report outlines current progress towards establishment of the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), presents current and projected funding levels and timelines, and describes policy issues of potential interest to Congress, such as agency coordination, possession of viruses, construction timelines, disposition of PIADC, and community safety concerns.
Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Monke, Jim & Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department