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1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steamer cogeneration plant: design and cost study

Description: A conceptual design and cost study is presented for intermediate size high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for industrial energy applications performed by United Engineers and Constructors Inc., (UE and C) and The General Atomic Company (GAC). The study is part of a program at ORNL and has the objective to provide support in the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of a single unit 1170 MW/sub t/ HTGR steam cycle cogeneration plant (referred to as the Steamer plant) for the production of industrial process energy. Inherent in the achievement of this objective, it was essential to perform a number of basic tasks such as the development of plant concept, capital cost estimate, project schedule and annual operation and maintenance (O and M) cost.
Date: August 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat. Interim design and cost status report, FY 1981

Description: Studies conductd on HTGR systems in FY 1980 were concluded in Application Study Reports to describe the preconceptual system designs to that point and discuss possible applications for three variations of the systems; the steam cycle/cogeneration plant, the higher temperature reformer plant, and the gas turbine concept. The HTGR-Reformer Application Study was conceived and directed to evaluate the HTGR-R with a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C as a near-term Lead Project and as a vehicle to long-term HTGR Program Objectives. The scope of this effort included evaluations of the HTGR-R technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-R markets, assesment of the economics of commercial HTGR-R plants, and the evaluation of the program scope and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-R technology through the completion of the Lead Project.
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process gas and steam-electric system parameters and advanced reformer concept guidelines for 850/sup 0/C IDC and 950/sup 0/C monolithic HTGR concepts

Description: The following is a description of the endeavors being pursued at ARSD as potential means of directly reducing the reformer plant and/or product costs. Three broad areas are currently under evaluation to achieve the cost reduction objectives and they include: (1) reduced reformer cost by simplifying the design, (2) improving thermochemical performance by enhanced heat transfer and catalyst activity, and (3) modification of process condition assumptions.
Date: January 21, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

Description: A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements.
Date: July 1, 1976
Creator: Barnes, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative investigation of the economics of seawater desalting based on current and advanced distillation concepts

Description: A reassessment of desalting plant design and product water cost based on current technology and energy and equipment costs has been made. Plant sizes in the range of 1 to 200 Mgd utilizing the multistage flash (MSF) and the vertical tube evaporator (VTE) were investigated. Process steam was assumed to be supplied by large nuclear dual-purpose plants or from fossil-fired low-pressure boilers. Plants applying the pH control method versus the threshold pretreatment method were compared. The potential benefits of applying low cost aluminum tubing in low-temperature VTE plants were also investigated.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Glueckstern, P. & Reed, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process application. Appendix I. Evaluation of the reactor system

Description: In April 1974, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)) authorized General Atomic Company, General Electric Company, and Westinghouse Electric Corp., Astronuclear Laboratory, to assess the available technology for producing heat using very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An evaulation of these studies and of the technical and economic potential of very high-temperature reactors (VHTR) is presented. The VHTR is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor. The concepts and technology are evaluated for producing process stream temperatures of 649, 760, 871, 982, and 1093/sup 0/C (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, and 2000/sup 0/F). There are a number of large industrial process heat applications that could utilize the VHTR.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Jones, J. E. Jr. & Spiewak, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicted nuclear heating and temperatures in gas-cooled nuclear reactors for process heat applications

Description: The high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) is an attractive potential source of primary energy for many industrial and chemical process applications. Significant modification of current HTGR core design will be required to achieve the required elevations in exit gas temperatures without exceeding the maximum allowable temperature limits for the fuel material. A preliminary evaluation of the effects of various proposed design modifications by predicting the resulting fuel and gas temperatures with computer calculational modeling techniques is reported. The design modifications evaluated are generally those proposed by the General Atomic Company (GAC), a manufacturer of HTGRs, and some developed at the LASL. The GAC modifications do result in predicted fuel and exit gas temperatures which meet the proposed design objectives. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1975
Creator: Cort, G.E.; Vigil, J.C. & Jiacoletti, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

Description: The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Pfremmer, R.D. & Openshaw, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and application for a high-temperature nuclear heat source

Description: The nuclear reactor designed for process heat has a power output of 842 MW(t), a core outlet temperature of 950/sup 0/C (1742/sup 0/F), and an intermediate helium loop to separate the heat source from the process heat exchangers. Steam-methane reforming is the reference process. As part of the development of a nuclear process heat system, a computer code, Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design, is being developed. This code models both the reactor plant and a steam reforming plant. When complete, the program will have the capability to calculate an overall mass and heat balance, size the plant components, and estimate the plant cost for a wide variety of independent variables.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Quade, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application

Description: The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/ (1000 x 10/sup 9/ bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Rao, R. & McMain, A.T. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature nuclear reactors as an energy source for hydrogen production

Description: From hydrogen economy Miami energy conference; Miami Beach, Florida, USA (18 Mar 1974). Application of current high-temperature reactor technology to hydrogen production is reviewed. The requirements and problems of matching a thermochemical hydrogen production cycle to a nuclear heat source are discussed. Possibilities for extending the temperature of reactors upward are outlined. The major engineering problem is identified as the development of a high-temperature process heat exchanger separating the nuclear heat source from the chemical process. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Balcomb, J.D. & Booth, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mobile energy depot feasibility study: summary report

Description: Declassified 28 Aug 1973. Various methods of producing and using nuclear power for military land vehicles and other military equipment were investigated and evaluated. A nuclear-powered mobile energy depot (MED) would move with advancing armies and produce vehicle fuels from materials readily available in the field. This would make mechanized units independent of external fuel supplies for extended periods, and permit them to move quickly and easily to areas impossible for units that depend on the customary fuel supply lines. Many possible MED systems were evaluated on the basis of energy sources, fuel manufacturing (by both conventional and chemonuclear processes), fuel storage and transportation, and fuel utilization in both present-day internal-combustion engines and power units of the future (i.e., fuel cells). The applications of more than a dozen MED systems to vehicular propulsion were studied. (auth)
Date: July 13, 1962
Creator: Burwell, S.B.; Carlson, J.A.; Clark, R.G.; Donelan, L.E.; Erwin, A.F.; Grimes, P.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of the G-PASS code : status report.

Description: Validation is the process of determining whether the models in a computer code can describe the important phenomena in applications of interest. This report describes past work and proposed future work for validating the Gas Plant Analyzer and System Simulator (G-PASS) code. The G-PASS code was developed for simulating gas reactor and chemical plant system behavior during operational transients and upset events. Results are presented comparing code properties, individual component models, and integrated system behavior against results from four other computer codes. Also identified are two experiment facilities nearing completion that will provide additional data for individual component and integrated system model validation. The main goal of the validation exercise is to ready a version of G-PASS for use as a tool in evaluating vendor designs and providing guidance to vendors on design directions in nuclear-hydrogen applications.
Date: March 12, 2009
Creator: Vilim, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

Description: This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: SRC-II process application

Description: The solvent refined coal (SRC-II) process is an advanced process being developed by Gulf Mineral Resources Ltd. (a Gulf Oil Corporation subsidiary) to produce a clean, non-polluting liquid fuel from high-sulfur bituminous coals. The SRC-II commercial plant will process about 24,300 tonnes (26,800 tons) of feed coal per stream day, producing primarily fuel oil plus secondary fuel gases. This summary report describes the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating in a process steam/cogeneration mode (HTGR-PS/C) to provide the energy requirements for the SRC-II process. The HTGR-PS/C plant was developed by General Atomic Company (GA) specifically for industries which require energy in the form of both steam and electricity. General Atomic has developed an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C design which is particularly well suited to industrial applications and is expected to have excellent cost benefits over other sources of energy.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Rao, R. & McMain, A. T., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam Cycle/Cogeneration Lead Project strategy plan

Description: The strategy for developing the HTGR system and introducing it into the energy marketplace is based on using the most developed technology path to establish a HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) Lead Project. Given the status of the HTGR-SC/C technology, a Lead Plant could be completed and operational by the mid 1990s. While there is remaining design and technology development that must be accomplished to fulfill technical and licensing requirements for a Lead Project commitment, the major barriers to the realization a HTGR-SC/C Lead Project are institutional in nature, e.g. Project organization and management, vendor/supplier development, cost/risk sharing between the public and private sector, and Project financing. These problems are further exacerbated by the overall pervading issues of economic and regulatory instability that presently confront the utility and nuclear industries. This document addresses the major institutional issues associated with the HTGR-SC/C Lead Project and provides a starting point for discussions between prospective Lead Project participants toward the realization of such a Project.
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat 950/sup 0/C DC vs. 850/sup 0/C IDC baseline plant cost comparison

Description: This evaluation compares two configurations of the 1170 MWt HTGR-R: the 950/sup 0/C direct cycle (DC) plant vs. the 850/sup 0/C indirect cycle (IDC) baseline plant. The subject evaluation is comprised of the following attachments: bases and assumptions for the cost and economic evaluations; capital cost and economic evaluation; major design differences; major technical issues; and drawings, as listed, for both plants. Drawing C-5001 is a composite plot plan which highlights the differences between the two plants.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

Description: This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

Description: Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Technology Program progress report for November 1975. [Hydrocarbonization; solid-liquid separations; chemical research and development; nuclear process heat for coal conversion]

Description: This report, the sixteenth of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development projects that are in support of the increased utilization of coal as a sorce of clean energy. The projects reported include those for hydrocarbonization, solid-liquid separations, chemical research and development, engineering evaluations of nuclear process heat for coal conversion, engineering evaluations of the Hydrocarbonization and Synthoil processes. Two shakedown runs were completed in hydrocarbonization research. Five and 20 lb coal were pyrolyzed at ca. 1050/sup 0/F under 5 atm N/sub 2/ pressure. It is hoped that H/sub 2/ will be introduced into the system in January. Batch settling tests showed that with 20% toluene settling was faster at low than at high temperatures. Additives have been found that in ppM concentrations give complete settling at very short residence times. The use of transmission electron microscopy to examine the microporosity of coals has continued. Work continues in the engineering evaluations of nuclear process heat for coal conversion. In the engineering evaluations work for Synthoil, design of the high-temperature shift section and analysis of unit reactor vessels were initiated. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department