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Dilution of liquid oxygen when nitrogen is used for pressurization

Description: Report presenting a graphic method for determining the composition and phases within a propellant tank when liquid oxygen is pressurized with nitrogen gas and some of the calculations involved. The assumed limiting conditions are that pressurizing gas flows adiabatically from the pressure tank and that equilibrium exists in the oxygen-nitrogen system. The experiment indicates that a series dilution of the oxidant occurs when nitrogen is used as a pressurizing gas, but a barrier at the liquid-gas interface would permit the use of nitrogen.
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Walsh, Thomas J.; Hibbard, R. R. & Ordin, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

Description: Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.
Date: September 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

Description: New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.
Date: April 18, 1995
Creator: Rambach, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack design pressure rating

Description: The SNF project was directed to increase the MCO pressure rating by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) unless the action was shown to be cost prohibitive. This guidance was driven by RL's assessment that there was a need to improve margin and reduce risks associated with assumptions supporting the bounding pressure calculation for the MCO Sealing Strategy. Although more recent pressure analyses show a bounding MCO pressure of 50 psig, RL still considers it prudent to retain the pressure margin the 450 psig rating provides. This rating creates a real, clearly definable margin and significantly reduces the risk that the safety basis will be challenged.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Smith, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new casting defect healing technology

Description: A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W. & Viswanathan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Beam Induced Pressure Increases in Rhic Warm Vacuum Sections.

Description: With increasing intensity of gold and proton beams during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at a few RHIC warm vacuum sections. The pressure increases were analyzed and compared with the beam parameters such as ion species, bunch intensity, total intensity, number ofbunches, bunch spacing and beam loss. Most of these pressure increases were found to be consistent with those induced by either beam loss and/or electron multipacting.
Date: June 2, 2002
Creator: Hseuh, H. C.; Smart, L. A. & Zhang, S. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluor-Hanford 3013 Digital Radiography Dead Zone Mitigation Project Pressure Test Report

Description: The use of digital radiographic (DR) measurement of lid deflection as an indication of pressurization of the 3013 inner can was first reported by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The conclusions of this report were that for cans with relatively large initial concavity, lid deflection could be used to meet the 3013 standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) requirement for a nondestructive indication of a pressurization of 100 psig. During acceptance testing of the system in the Spring of 2003, it was confirmed that for some cans the DR measured lid deflection could become insensitive to the change in lid deflection when compared to actual mechanical measurements. The basic explanation of this phenomenon is that characteristics of the lid geometry such as tilt and wobble can obfuscate the bottom of the lid where the deflection is measured. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the pressure testing and the efficacy of the alternate imaging and analysis methods developed to mitigate the dead zone problem. Prior to review of the results, a review of the current method and an introduction to the newly developed methods and techniques is provided.
Date: November 21, 2003
Creator: Gibbs, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

Description: Two new radon mitigation techniques are introduced and their evaluation in a field study complemented by numerical model predictions is described. Based on numerical predictions, installation of a sub gravel membrane at the study site resulted in a factor of two reduction in indoor radon concentrations. Experimental data indicated that installation of 'short-circuit' pipes extending between the subslab gravel and outdoors, caused an additional factor of two decrease in the radon concentration. Consequently, the combination of these two passive radon mitigation features, called the membrane and short-circuit (MASC) technique, was associated with a factor of four reduction in indoor radon concentration. The energy-efficient active radon mitigation method, called efficient active subslab pressurization (EASP), required only 20% of the fan energy of conventional active subslab depressurization and reduced the indoor radon concentration by approximately a factor of 15, including the numerically-predicted impact of the sub-gravel membrane.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Fisk, W. J.; Prill, R. J.; Wooley, J.; Bonnefous, Y. C.; Gadgil, A. J. & Riley, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack pressure testing

Description: The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) shield plug closure assembly will be hydrostatically tested at the fabricator's shop to the 150 psig design test requirement in accordance with the ASME Code. Additionally, the MCO shell and collar will be hydrostatically tested at the fabricator's shop to the 450 psig design test requirement. Commercial practice has not required a pressure test of the closure weld after spent fuel is loaded in the containers. Based on this precedent and Code Case N-595-I, the MCO closure weld will not be pressure tested in the field.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Smith, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of deformation and stiffness of fractures close to tunnels using data from single-hole hydraulic testing and grouting

Description: Sealing of tunnels in fractured rocks is commonly performed by pre- or post-excavation grouting. The grouting boreholes are frequently drilled close to the tunnel wall, an area where rock stresses can be low and fractures can more easily open up during grout pressurization. In this paper we suggest that data from hydraulic testing and grouting can be used to identify grout-induced fracture opening, to estimate fracture stiffness of such fractures, and to evaluate its impact on the grout performance. A conceptual model and a method are presented for estimating fracture stiffness. The method is demonstrated using grouting data from four pre-excavation grouting boreholes at a shallow tunnel (50 m) in Nygard, Sweden, and two post-excavation grouting boreholes at a deep tunnel (450 m) in Aespoe HRL, Sweden. The estimated stiffness of intersecting fractures for the boreholes at the shallow Nygard tunnel are low (2-5 GPa/m) and in agreement with literature data from field experiments at other fractured rock sites. Higher stiffness was obtained for the deeper tunnel boreholes at Aespoe which is reasonable considering that generally higher rock stresses are expected at greater depths. Our method of identifying and evaluating the properties and impact of deforming fractures might be most applicable when grouting takes place in boreholes adjacent to the tunnel wall, where local stresses might be low and where deforming (opening) fractures may take most of the grout.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Fransson, A.; Tsang, C.-F.; Rutqvist, J. & Gustafson, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

Description: Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position.
Date: April 15, 2004
Creator: HENSEL, SJ
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

Description: The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.
Date: March 21, 2005
Creator: Cook, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

Description: Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.
Date: July 10, 2009
Creator: Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen & Freshwater, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure material strength or effective lattice viscosity in metal foils are presented. On the Omega Laser in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, target samples of polycrystalline vanadium are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the samples in the solid-state. Comparison of the results with constitutive models for solid state strength under these conditions show that the measured RT growth is substantially lower than predictions using existing models that work well at low pressures and long time scales. High pressure, high strain rate data can be explained by the enhanced strength due to a phonon drag mechanism, creating a high effective lattice viscosity.
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Park, H; Barton, N R; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack pressurization monitoring and control methodology for the spent nuclear fuel project

Description: A control methodology is developed and monitoring alternatives evaluated for controlling pressurization in a Multi- Canister Overpack for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Monitoring alternative evaluations include concept description, identification of uncertainties, and identification of experimental work required for implementation. A monitoring alternative is recommended and implementation requirements, risks and start up testing associated with the recommendation are discussed.
Date: July 19, 1996
Creator: Pajunen, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self pressuring HTP feed systems

Description: Hydrogen peroxide tanks can be pressurized with decomposed HTP (high test hydrogen peroxide) originating in the tank itself. In rocketry, this offers the advantage of eliminating bulky and heavy inert gas storage. Several prototype self-pressurizing HTP systems have recently been designed and tested. Both a differential piston tank and a small gas-driven pump have been tried to obtain the pressure boost needed for flow through a gas generator and back to the tank. Results include terrestrial maneuvering tests of a prototype microsatellite, including warm gas attitude control jets.
Date: October 14, 1999
Creator: Whitehead, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is drilling an infill well in the Womack Hill Field, Choctaw and Clarke Counties, Alabama. The objectives of the project are to drill and core an infill well in Womack Hill Field; to utilize samples from the core to evaluate further the feasibility of implementing an immobilized enzyme technology project in the field; and to use the new information resulting from the drilling of the well to revise and modify the 3-D geologic model, to further modify the injection strategy for the existing pressure maintenance program, and to assess whether a second infill well should be drilled using lateral/multilateral well completions.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Mancini, Ernest A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Waves Induced by Megasonic Agitation in a LIGA Development Tank

Description: Megasonic agitation is used to improve the uniformity of the LIGA{sup 1} development process. To investigate the acoustic wave fields induced by megasonic agitation, we compute wave fields for a development tank containing a submerged wafer and for a typical trench-like feature on the wafer face. This separate treatment of these two problems is advantageous, because the length scales of the tank and the feature differ by three to four orders of magnitude. A spectral method based on Green's functions is used to construct the acoustic wave field, avoiding the alternative of solving partial differential equations over the entire domain. The total acoustic wave field is obtained by superposing of the primary wave field and the first reflected wave field, which are computed in sequence without any need for iterations. The wafer interference to the wave field is treated directly by a priori recognition of shadow regions in the primary field and a concept of boundary of dependence in the reflected field. Unlike a divergent wave field produced by ultrasonic agitation, results show that the wave field in the tank becomes narrowly focused at megasonic frequencies such that the most effective agitation is confined in a region directly above the acoustic source; this numerical expectation has been verified analytically and further confirmed experimentally by Sandia's LIGA Group.{sup [13]} The amplitude of the focused wave pressure is proportional to square root of the wave frequency. The wave pattern in a feature cavity also depends strongly on the orientation of the wafer and the aspect ratio of the cavity. It is concluded that the LIGA development process will be greatly accelerated, if the orientation and the location of the immersed wafer is arranged so that the wafer spends more time in the focused wave field of high frequency agitation.
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Ting, Aili
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

Description: The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized.
Date: October 14, 2003
Creator: Patel, M V & Streitz, F H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single Crystal Preparation for High-Pressure Experiments in the Diamond Anvil Cell

Description: Most research conducted in diamond anvil cells (DAC) is performed on polycrystalline samples. While data from polycrystalline samples are sufficient for determining the bulk properties, high-pressure experiments on single crystals allow for measurements on a range of tensor properties such as: thermal and electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; elasticity; and plasticity. However, in order to achieve pressures above 1 Mbar in a DAC, single crystal samples must be <50 m in diameter and <15 m thick while maintaining a high degree of crystallinity. Thus, we have developed new procedures for producing extremely high-quality micro single crystal samples from commercially available material. Our sample preparation steps include cutting, classical metallographic polishing, and laser ablation. The key to our new process is the preservation of crystallinity during cutting and thinning. We have been successful in maintaining orientation, along with an extremely high degree of crystallinity in completed metal samples. To date, we have analyzed cobalt and molybdenum samples with both white-light interferometry and synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and are in the process of extending these methods to other metals and ceramics.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Aracne, C; Farber, D; Benterou, J; Occelli, F; Krisch, M; Antonangeli, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AL-SX (H1616) Container Support: Out-gassing of Polyethylene and Polycarbonate Resins

Description: Out-gassing tests were carried out on samples of polyethylene and polycarbonate packaging components used within the AL-SX (H1616) shipping container and compared to known samples of high and low density polyethylene and polycarbonate. Polyethylene is used to fabricate the shipping container overpack for the MC3007A/MC4059 and 1X-Acorn; LEXAN{reg_sign} polycarbonate (General Electric) is used to fabricate the lid of the Protective Container utilized to package the MC4213/MC4240 and MC4524 for shipment in the AL-SX (H1616). Pressure was monitored up to about 650 F and all the samples showed similar increases in pressure which were only slightly above those measured for control runs using no resin sample. None of the polymer samples showed out-gassing behavior that would lead to excessive pressure increases in the H1616 within that temperature range.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Story, G.Cook & Domeier, Leon Seibel and Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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