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Dilution of liquid oxygen when nitrogen is used for pressurization

Description: Report presenting a graphic method for determining the composition and phases within a propellant tank when liquid oxygen is pressurized with nitrogen gas and some of the calculations involved. The assumed limiting conditions are that pressurizing gas flows adiabatically from the pressure tank and that equilibrium exists in the oxygen-nitrogen system. The experiment indicates that a series dilution of the oxidant occurs when nitrogen is used as a pressurizing gas, but a barrier at the liquid-gas interface would permit the use of nitrogen.
Date: April 1, 1958
Creator: Walsh, Thomas J.; Hibbard, R. R. & Ordin, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetrationand deposition in the indoor environment

Description: Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size-dependent particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: (1) measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations, (2) rapid reduction in particle concentration through induced ventilation by pressurization of the houses with HEPA-filtered air, and (3) measurement of the particle concentration rebound after house pressurization stopped. During the particle concentration decay period, when indoor concentrations are very high, losses due to deposition are large compared to gains due to particle infiltration. During the concentration rebound period, the opposite is true. The large variation in indoor concentration allows the effects of penetration and deposition losses to be separated by the transient, two-parameter model we employed to analyze the data. We found penetration factors between 0.3 and 1 and deposition loss rates between 0.1 and 5 h{sup -1}, for particles between 0.1 and 10 {micro}m.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: tlthatcher@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new casting defect healing technology

Description: A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W. & Viswanathan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluor-Hanford 3013 Digital Radiography Dead Zone Mitigation Project Pressure Test Report

Description: The use of digital radiographic (DR) measurement of lid deflection as an indication of pressurization of the 3013 inner can was first reported by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The conclusions of this report were that for cans with relatively large initial concavity, lid deflection could be used to meet the 3013 standard (DOE-STD-3013-2000) requirement for a nondestructive indication of a pressurization of 100 psig. During acceptance testing of the system in the Spring of 2003, it was confirmed that for some cans the DR measured lid deflection could become insensitive to the change in lid deflection when compared to actual mechanical measurements. The basic explanation of this phenomenon is that characteristics of the lid geometry such as tilt and wobble can obfuscate the bottom of the lid where the deflection is measured. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the pressure testing and the efficacy of the alternate imaging and analysis methods developed to mitigate the dead zone problem. Prior to review of the results, a review of the current method and an introduction to the newly developed methods and techniques is provided.
Date: November 21, 2003
Creator: Gibbs, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

Description: New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.
Date: April 18, 1995
Creator: Rambach, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: With increasing intensity of gold and proton beams during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at a few RHIC warm vacuum sections. The pressure increases were analyzed and compared with the beam parameters such as ion species, bunch intensity, total intensity, number ofbunches, bunch spacing and beam loss. Most of these pressure increases were found to be consistent with those induced by either beam loss and/or electron multipacting.
Date: June 2, 2002
Creator: HSEUH,H.C.; SMART,L.A. & ZHANG,S.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack design pressure rating

Description: The SNF project was directed to increase the MCO pressure rating by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) unless the action was shown to be cost prohibitive. This guidance was driven by RL's assessment that there was a need to improve margin and reduce risks associated with assumptions supporting the bounding pressure calculation for the MCO Sealing Strategy. Although more recent pressure analyses show a bounding MCO pressure of 50 psig, RL still considers it prudent to retain the pressure margin the 450 psig rating provides. This rating creates a real, clearly definable margin and significantly reduces the risk that the safety basis will be challenged.
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Smith, K. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

Description: Two new radon mitigation techniques are introduced and their evaluation in a field study complemented by numerical model predictions is described. Based on numerical predictions, installation of a sub gravel membrane at the study site resulted in a factor of two reduction in indoor radon concentrations. Experimental data indicated that installation of 'short-circuit' pipes extending between the subslab gravel and outdoors, caused an additional factor of two decrease in the radon concentration. Consequently, the combination of these two passive radon mitigation features, called the membrane and short-circuit (MASC) technique, was associated with a factor of four reduction in indoor radon concentration. The energy-efficient active radon mitigation method, called efficient active subslab pressurization (EASP), required only 20% of the fan energy of conventional active subslab depressurization and reduced the indoor radon concentration by approximately a factor of 15, including the numerically-predicted impact of the sub-gravel membrane.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Wooley, J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J. & Riley, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Using a residential-size duct system in a controlled laboratory setting, the repeatability and accuracy of the Delta Q test for air leakage in residential duct systems have been measured. More than 100 Delta Q tests were performed. These were compared with results using fan pressurization and also with results of a procedure (Delta Q Plus) that uses leakage hole-size information to select the leakage pressures to be used in the Delta Q algorithm. The average error in supply or return leakage for the fan-pressurization test was 6.4% of system fan flow. For the Delta Q test it was 3.4% of fan flow, while for Delta Q Plus it was 1.9% of fan flow.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: ANDREWS,J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

Description: Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing < 1.5 g/l, maximum safe storage times from 4 weeks to 12 months are proposed. The maximum safe storage times vary depending upon the plutonium concentration in the solution. Low concentration plutonium solutions can be stored safely for longer periods of time than high concentration plutonium solutions. For solutions containing > 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed.
Date: March 15, 1995
Creator: Conner, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical basis for storage of elastomer-sealed produce cans in the DOE-STD-3013-94 package

Description: Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94 establishes criteria for the long-term packaging of plutonium metal and oxide. The inclusion of organic materials in sealed packages of plutonium may produce gases that contribute to container pressurization. To expedite processing, it would be desirable to permit, within the DOE-outlined criteria, limited amounts of organic materials to be used as a sealing gasket in some packaging containers. This paper presents a technical basis for allowing elastomer-sealed cans to be packaged inside the sealed inner container of a double weld-sealed DOE-STD-3013-94 container system.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Horrell, D.R.; Stakebake, J.L. & Szempruch, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

Description: In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H. & Shikany, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of 1.0-L sample bottle pressurization tests for the pit burst experiment

Description: Pressurization tests were performed on a 1.0-L sample bottle to verify operational aspects of the pit burst experimental test apparatus. The 1.0-L sample bottle was selected because of its known geometry, certified performance and ready availability. Redundant strain gage instrumentation was installed on the test sample enabling evaluation of the repeatability and consistency of data acquisition. Test results were compared with analytical model predictions to evaluate instrumentation accuracy.
Date: February 1997
Creator: Veirs, K. D.; Prenger, F. C.; Harradine, D.M. & McFarlan, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of vibration and pressure pulsation in positive displacement drilling motors

Description: Three, Moineau principle, positive displacement (drilling) motors were tested on a dynamometer using water, air/mist, and foam. In conjunction with a traditional motor performance test, data were collected at 5000 samples per second using an adapted seismic data acquisition system. Shaft speed, torque, pressure, and three-axis vibration data were processed using Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) to obtain energy density spectrums (EDSs). Cascade plots were generated by plotting the EDSs against shaft speed. The cascade plots revealed that pressure pulses and motor vibrations are closely related to the eccentric rotation of the rotor in the power section. Excessive no-load vibrations were not observed in the small motors and test apparatus used; increasing torque usually decreases the amplitude of vibrations observed. Motor vibration amplitudes were as a rule not increased when compressible fluids were substituted for water.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Hamlin, D.B. & Dreesen, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a postulated plutonium hydride burn

Description: A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a postulated chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures.
Date: May 21, 1998
Creator: Crea, B. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Canister overpack pressurization monitoring and control methodology for the spent nuclear fuel project

Description: A control methodology is developed and monitoring alternatives evaluated for controlling pressurization in a Multi- Canister Overpack for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Monitoring alternative evaluations include concept description, identification of uncertainties, and identification of experimental work required for implementation. A monitoring alternative is recommended and implementation requirements, risks and start up testing associated with the recommendation are discussed.
Date: July 19, 1996
Creator: Pajunen, A.L., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salado hydrology program data report {number_sign}3

Description: WIPP Salado Hydrology Program Data Report {number_sign}3 presents hydrologic data collected during permeability testing, coupled permeability and hydrofracture testing, and gas-threshold-pressure testing of the Salado Formation performed from November 1991 through October 1995. Fluid-pressure monitoring data representing August 1989 through May 1995 are also included. The report presents data from the drilling and testing of three boreholes associated with the permeability testing program, nine boreholes associated with the coupled permeability and hydrofracture testing program, and three boreholes associated with the gas-threshold-pressure testing program. The purpose of the permeability testing program was to provide data with which to interpret the disturbed and undisturbed permeability and pore pressure characteristics of the different Salado Formation lithologies. The purpose of the coupled permeability and hydrofracture testing program was to provide data with which to characterize the occurrence, propagation, and direction of pressure induced fractures in the Salado Formation lithologies, especially MB139. The purpose of the gas-threshold-pressure testing program was to provide data with which to characterize the conditions under which pressurized gas displaces fluid in the brine-saturated Salado Formation lithologies. All of the holes were drilled from the WIPP underground facility 655 m below ground surface in the Salado Formation.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Chace, D.A.; Roberts, R.M.; Palmer, J.B.; Kloska, M.B.; Fort, M.D.; Martin, G.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Protection from Aerosols

Description: Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Cristy, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self pressuring HTP feed systems

Description: Hydrogen peroxide tanks can be pressurized with decomposed HTP (high test hydrogen peroxide) originating in the tank itself. In rocketry, this offers the advantage of eliminating bulky and heavy inert gas storage. Several prototype self-pressurizing HTP systems have recently been designed and tested. Both a differential piston tank and a small gas-driven pump have been tried to obtain the pressure boost needed for flow through a gas generator and back to the tank. Results include terrestrial maneuvering tests of a prototype microsatellite, including warm gas attitude control jets.
Date: October 14, 1999
Creator: Whitehead, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department