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Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of climax stock quartz monzonite at high pressure and temperature

Description: Measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity have been made on two samples of Climax Stock quartz monzonite at pressures between 3 and 50 MPa and temperatures between 300 and 523{sup 0}K. Following those measurements the apparatus was calibrated with respect to the thermal conductivity measurement using a reference standard of fused silica. Corrected thermal conductivity of the rock indicates a value at room temperature of 2.60 +- 0.25 W/mK at 3 MPa increasing linearly to 2.75 +- 0.25 W/mK at 50 MPa. These values are unchanged (+- 0.07 W/mK) by heating under 50-MPa pressure to as high as 473{sup 0}K. The conductivity under 50-MPa confining pressure falls smoothly from 2.75 +- 0.25 W/mK at 313{sup 0}K to 2.15 +- 0.25 W/mK at 473{sup 0}K. Thermal diffusivity at 300{sup 0}K was found to be 1.2 +- 0.4 X 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s and shows approximately the same pressure and temperature dependencies as the thermal conductivity.
Date: November 1981
Creator: Durham, W. B. & Abey, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials

Description: A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Reda, D.C. & Eaton, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste package performance in unsaturated rock

Description: The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Pigford, T.H. & Lee, W.W.-L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Session 13: Technology Transfer of Geopressured/Geothermal Resources to Industry

Description: This research, conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Center for Energy Studies, includes the following areas of interest; geological studies depicting pressure gradients and thermal gradients, sand distribution and fault patterns, all of which are used in petroleum exploration; geophysical data for interpretation of seismic velocities based upon lithologic changes and subsurface discontinuities; sandstone consolidation data involving changes of permeabilities with depth and diagenetic histories of Cenozoic rocks in the Gulf Coast Basin--this work also covers fluid migration pathways and resulting rock-water interactions and has led to a better understanding of generation, maturation and accumulation of hydrocarbons; work on salinity of formation waters covering several areas of study, such as chemical analysis to anticipate scale and corrosion problems, and investigations of logging techniques to better ascertain salinity of use of well logs; reservoir continuity studies, together with computational modeling to assist in estimation of ultimate recoveries and formation drives; rock mechanics studies, which have recently led to the development of new models to account for creep and determine compressibilities of sandstones and shales in geopressured environments; co-production of gas and water in watered-out gas reservoirs.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Dorfman, Myron H. & Morton, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

Description: This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Palmer, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Next steps in two-phase flow: executive summary

Description: The executive summary includes the following topics of discussion: the state of affairs; the fundamental governing equations; the one-dimensional mixture model; the drift-flux model; the Denver Research Institute two-phase geothermal flow program; two-phase flow pattern transition criteria; a two-fluid model under development; the mixture model as applied to geothermal well flow; DRI downwell instrumentation; two-phase flow instrumentation; the Sperry Research Corporation downhole pump and gravity-head heat exchanger systems; and the Brown University two-phase flow experimental program. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: DiPippo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear equation of state studied with high-energy heavy ions

Description: The current knowledge and theoretical speculations concerning the nuclear equation of state is discussed. Conventional relativistic nuclear fluid dynamics, which is based on the assumption that the nucleon mean free path is zero and consequently neglects the interpenetration of the target and projectile upon contact, is also discussed. Results of such calculations performed for three different equations of state are compared with experimental data for both all impact parameters and central collisions for the reaction /sup 20/Ne + /sup 238/U at a laboratory bombarding energy per nucleon of 393 MeV. These comparisons suggest that we need to take into account target and projectile interpenetration, which is done on the basis of a two-fluid model. An assessment of the present status and future prospects for determining the nuclear equation of state with high-energy heavy ions is given. (WHK)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Nix, J.R. & Strottman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HSST wide-plate test results and analysis

Description: Fifteen wide-plate crack-arrest tests have been completed to date, ten utilizing specimens fabricated from A533B class 1 material (WP-1 and WP-CE series), and five fabricated from a low upper-shelf base material (WP-2 series). Each test utilized a single-edge notched specimen that was subjected to a linear thermal gradient along the plane of crack propagation. Test results exhibit an increase in crack-arrest toughness with temperature, with the rate of increase becoming greater as the temperature increases. When the wide-plate test results are combined with other large-specimen results the data show a consistent trend in which the K/sub Ia/ data extends above the limit provided in ASME Section XI. 24 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Naus, D.J.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Fields, R.J.; deWit, R. & Low, S.R. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Kinetics for the Shock-Induced Decomposition of Heterogeneous Explosives

Description: Methods were developed to determine empirical rate laws for the shock-induced decomposition of condensed explosives. Pressure-field histories are measured with embedded gauges in plane-wave shock-initiation experiments. A Lagrangian analysis is used to integrate the fluid-dynamic conservation relations, giving the histories of density and energy fields in the reactive flow. A reactant-product equation of state is assumed and a global reaction progress variable and the associated reaction rate are calculated. Correlations of the rate to other state variables provide empirical rate laws, which prove successful in the numerical modeling of numerous initiation and detonation phenomena. Heterogeneous explosive rate laws combining three factors - shock-strength, depletion, and heating - are consistent with many shock-initiation observations and the favored nucleation and growth concept of shock-induced decomposition. The strong correlation to a simple Arrhenius heating factor is remarkable, because the temperature is an average, equilibrium quantity calculated from the equation of state, yet the formation of local high-temperature regions, or hotspots, is the dominant reaction mechanism in heterogeneous explosives. Possible physical implication of the Arrhenius correlation, and other choices for the three rate factors are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Wackerle, J. & Anderson, A. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

Description: In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W. & Merkle, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multivent effects in a large scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

Description: The steam-driven GKSS pressure suppression test facility, which contains 3 full scale vent pipes, has been used for 5 years to investigate the postulated loss-of-coolant accident in a Mark II and Type 69 boiling water reactor. Using the results from several of these tests, wetwell boundary load data (peak pressures and spectral power) during the chugging stage, have been evaluated for sparse pool response (one and two vents in the three vent pool) and for full pool response (one, two, or three vent operation in pools of constant wetwell pool area per vent). The sparse pool results indicate the pool-system, chug event boundary loads are strongly dependent on wetwell pool area per vent, with the load increasing with decreasing area. The full pool results show a substantial increase in the pool-system, chug event boundary loads upon a change from single cell to double cell operation; only minor change occurs in going from double to triple cell operation.
Date: July 6, 1984
Creator: McCauley, E.W.; Aust, E. & Schwan, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments

Description: We have developed and used an optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per/sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. We have also measured the sensitivity of the optical pins to slowly-moving projectiles and found that a 200 m/sec projectile impacting the microballoon sensor produces a flash having a risetime less than 100 ns and a pulse duration (FWHM) of less than 300 ns. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J. & Maynard, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic phenomena at high pressure

Description: High pressure research is undertaken either to investigate intrinsically high pressure phenomena or in order to get a better understanding of the effect of the chemical environment on properties or processes at one atmosphere. Studies of electronic properties which fall in each area are presented. Many molecules and complexes can assume in the excited state different molecular arrangements and intermolecular forces depending on the medium. Their luminescence emission is then very different in a rigid or a fluid medium. With pressure one can vary the viscosity of the medium by a factor of 10/sup 7/ and thus control the distribution and rate of crossing between the excited state conformations. In rare earth chelates the efficiency of 4f-4f emission of the rare earth is controlled by the feeding from the singlet and triplet levels of the organic ligand. These ligand levels can be strongly shifted by pressure. A study of the effect of pressure on the emission efficiency permits one to understand the effect of ligand chemistry at one atmosphere. At high pressure electronic states can be sufficiently perturbed to provide new ground states. In EDA complexes these new ground states exhibit unusual chemical reactivity and new products.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Drickamer, H.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for small-angle neutron scattering in MnO at 1700K

Description: A preliminary small-angle scattering (SANS) experiment has been performed on MnO single crystal at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The experiment was preformed at 1700/sup 0/K at oxygen partial pressures of 2.2 x 10/sup -4/, 1 x 10/sup 2/, and 2 x 10/sup 2/ Pa, which resulted in deviations from stoichiometry of about 0.0015, 0.082, and 0.127. No statistically significant change in SANS was observed at this temperature with the pressure changes. Neither was any significant change observed in the wavelength-dependent sample transmission, also measured in-situ as a function of pressure. Therefore, either clustering of cation vacancies is negligible in MnO for these conditions, or the clusters are smaller than about 5 A. Of proposed cluster configurations, only the existence of the smallest (4:1, 6:2, or possible 8:3) appears to be consistent with these results.
Date: 1986
Creator: Routbort, J. L.; Epperson, J. E.; Klippert, T. E. & Goretta, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Matching and Prediction for Serrazzano Geothermal Reservoir by Means of Numerical Simulation

Description: The simulator SHAFT79 of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been applied to field-wide distributed parameter simulation of the vapor-dominated geothermal reservoir at Serrazzano, Italy. Using a three-dimensional geologically accurate mesh and detailed flow rate data from 19 producing wells, a period of 15.5 years (from 1959 to 1975) has been simulated. The reservoir model used is based on field measurements of temperatures and pressures, laboratory data for core samples, and available geological and hydrological information. The main parameters determined (adjusted) during development of the simulation are permeabilities and much of the initial conditions.
Date: October 20, 1980
Creator: Pruess, K. & Weres, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sintering theory for crystalline solids

Description: A thermodynamic model for vacancy partitioning among sites of different bonding environments, yields a more satisfactory expression for the driving forces for sintering and for grain growth at constant temperature than traditional theories. This expression is shown to be also a logical consequence of classical thermodynamic theory for faceted particles. Then the driving force for sintering in a temperature gradient is evaluated in terms of gradients in equilibrium vapor pressures. 26 refs., 6 figs.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Searcy, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

Description: A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Suda, S. & Franssen, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resonance ionization spectroscopy measurement of the vapor pressure of several molecular species

Description: In recent years resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) has found increasing application to various problems involving detection of low levels of atomic, and more recently molecular, species. This work demonstrates the usefulness of RIS in measuring vapor pressure curves of molecular species at very low pressures. Specifically, the vapor pressures versus temperature relationship for rubidium iodide (RbI) and potassium iodide (KI) was measured by applying RIS to atomic Rb and K, using a two-laser system. A pulsed molecular nitrogen laser first dissociated the RbI to produce ground-state Rb atoms in the experimental cell. A flashlamp-pumped dye laser then ionized the Rb in a process wherein two photons of the same wavelength are absorbed, the first exciting Rb via an allowed transition to an upper state (5/sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 6/sup 2//sub 1/2 or 3/2/) lying in energy slightly more than half the distance to the ionization limit, and the second photon ionizing the excited Rb. In the case of KI, an excimer-laser-pumped dye laser was used in a similar way. An applied dc electric field swept the photoelectrons to a proportional counter for subsequent amplification and detection. The photoelectron signal was then related back to RbI and KI concentrations.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Capelle, G.A.; Jessup, D.A.; Borella, H.M. & Franks, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure under combined loads

Description: In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic format. However, by applying the probability-based reliability analysis method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the Final Safety Analysis Report. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load, accidental pressure due to a large LOCA, and earthquake ground acceleration. This paper presents the reliability analysis results of the Indian Point Unit 3 containment subjected to all combinations of loads.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Hwang, H.; Shinozuka, M.; Kawakami, J. & Reich, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CERL/ORNL research and development programs in support of prestressed concrete reactor vessel development

Description: In support of the evolution of PCRV designs being developed both in the UK and USA, research and developments programmers are being conducted at the CEGB Central Electricity Research Laboratories (CERL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) respectively. In the UK, recent work has focused on elevated temperature effects on concrete properties and instrument systems for PCRVs. The concrete development program at ORNL consists of generic studies designed to provide technical support for ongoing prestressed concrete reactor vessel-related activities, to contribute to the technological data base, and to provide independent review and evaluation of the relevant technology. Recent activities have been related to the development of properties for high-strength concrete mix designs for the PCRV of a 2240 MW(t) HTGR-SC/C lead plant project, and the development of PCRV model testing techniques.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Hornby, I.W. & Naus, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acoustic velocity measurements on fluid metals from two-fold compressions to two-fold expansions

Description: Methods used for making acoustic velocity measurements on samples which are destroyed in time scales of milliseconds or less are described. Analytic techniques for using this data to calculate thermodynamic quantities are outlined. New results indicating a linear relationship of acoustic velocity with density over a very large density range are presented. 30 refs., 5 figs. (DWL)
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Shaner, J.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Winkler, M.A. & Brown, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of reference conditions for geologic repositories for nuclear waste in the USA

Description: Activities to determine interim reference conditions for temperatures, pressure, fluid, chemical, and radiation environments that are expected to exist in commercial and defense high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt, basalt, tuff, granite, and shale are summarized. These interim conditions are being generated by the Reference Repository Conditions Interface Working Groups (RRC-IWG), an ad hoc IWG established by the National Waste Terminal Storage Program's (NWTS) Isolation Interface Control Board (I-ICB).
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Raines, G.E.; Rickertsen, L.D.; Claiborne, H.C.; McElroy, J.L. & Lynch, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design criteria and concepts for vented containment systems

Description: Accident sequences from WASH-1400 were selected and analyzed with the MARCH/CORRAL code to provide an envelope of design conditions. The time-dependent pressures and temperatures in containment were calculated as were the concentrations of steam, noncondensible gases, and airborne fission products in the containment atmosphere. The phenomenon found to be most challenging to containment integrity was a pressure spike resulting from rapid steam generation and/or hydrogen burning. The peak pressures in some sequences exceed the likely failure pressure. Conceptual designs were developed for preserving containment integrity. These include containment pressure relief or depressurization with various venting rates. Anticipatory venting, venting to the atmosphere, venting to a separate building, and venting followed by recirculation back into containment are considered. The effects of these schemes on the important system parameters were identified. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative schemes and their implications for the design of filtration equipment are discussed. For each venting strategy several levels of filtering effectiveness were considered. The simplest option developed is a once-through gravel-filled suppression pool. More sophisticated options involved sand filters, molecular sieves, charcoal adsorbers and HEPA filters. Results of accident consequence calculations using the CRAC code indicate the relatively simple options can provide substantial reductions in consequences of certain accident sequences. 12 figures.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Walling, H.C.; Benjamin, A.S. & Cybulskis, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coherence in CePd/sub 3/

Description: This paper presents results of resistivity and susceptibility measurements on CePd/sub 3/ and its alloys which support the existence of a third significant temperature, T* = 40K. Anomalous pressure dependence of rho(T) occurs and nonmagnetic impurities cause large increases in rho(T) on this scale, which is distinct from and smaller than the scale T/sub max/ over which coherence first appears. Evidence is given that the magnetic form factor anomaly known to exist in CePd/sub 3/ arises on the same scale T* suggesting that the 5d spin susceptibility which is responsible for the form factor anomaly is connected with the low temperature transport anomalies. The discussion is limited to the relationship of these results to other experimental measurements in CePd/sub 3/. In particular, we stress the relationship of these results to those of recent optical conductivity measurements which show that the quasi-particle effective mass is strongly renormalized at low temperatures. This occurs over a temperature scale proposed for T*.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Lawrence, J.M.; Chen, Y.Y. & Thompson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department