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Short Term Climatological Wind Data as a Tool for Wind Forecasting

Description: Utilizing short-term climatological wind data can enhance wind speed and wind direction forecasts. An analysis of regional or tower-based wind rose summaries can be useful forecast guides especially when synoptic-scale pressure gradients are weak. Predictive data from multiple models can be plotted against short-term climatological wind data to assess deviations from expected norms and differences between forecast models. Site-specific comparisons between predicted data and observed climatological distributions can provide further insights to the forecaster. These methods can be applied to any location where sufficient climatological data (at least two years) is available.
Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Parker, MJ
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A One-dimensional Transient Model of Down-flow Through a Swelling Packed Porous Bed

Description: A transient model of down-flow through an ion exchange column in which the resin swells has been developed. The model is herein described and results are presented. Wall friction can lead to high bed stresses when the resin in columns with high length to diameter ratios swells. These stresses can lead to high and potentially excursive hydraulic pressure drops along a column. A non-dimensional grouping that effectively correlates the final steady-state hydraulic behavior of a column with the resin compressibility, column geometric, and flow parameters has been determined.
Date: August 13, 2004
Creator: SHADDAY, MARTIN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of pressure on the luminescence emissions in CuGaSe2

Description: We present the results of a pressure-dependent photoluminescence (PL) study on CuGaSe{sub 2} films grown on GaAs substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The low-temperature PL spectra of the CuGaSe{sub 2} samples measured at atmospheric pressure are dominated by one near band-edge exciton luminescence line and two strong and relatively broad emissions associated with donor acceptor pairs (DAP). All the observed luminescence emission lines shift toward higher energy with increasing pressure at almost the same rate. The nearly identical pressure coefficients of the two DAP emissions as compared to that of the exciton emission confirm the suggestion that the recombination processes associated with the DAPs involve one shallow donor and two different acceptor species with different binding energies and related to two different native defects.
Date: July 13, 2004
Creator: Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Siebentritt, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Residual Saturation and Capillary Pressure Model for Granular Materials with UNSODA Data

Description: The capillary pressure model correlates drainage and imbibition data from the UNSODA database, provided that the data incorporate the entry head, a minimum displacement required for drainage to begin. According to the model, the imbibition pressure equals the drainage pressures at a critical minimum saturation of 0.301; below this critical saturation, no additional reversible drainage should occur. Some of the UNSODA data sets had a minimum saturation approximately half this value. The difference is attributed to the presence of fissures, which would lower the residual wetting and critical minimum saturations by reducing the fraction of the void volume controlled by capillary pores. If the UNSODA saturations are adjusted for this discrepancy, a probability distribution of minimum saturations for each data set peaks near the predicted critical minimum saturation. Maximum saturations for each data set have a peak near the predicted residual nonwetting saturation of 0.884.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: LAURINAT, JAMESE.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive Material Transportation Considerations with Respect to DOE 3013 Storage Containers

Description: This paper evaluates sealed hardware that meets the requirements of DOE-STD-3013, ''Criteria for Preparing and packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage'' with respect to radioactive material (Type B quantity) transportation requirements. The Standard provides criteria for packaging of the plutonium materials for storage periods of at least 50 years. The standard requires the hardware to maintain integrity under both normal storage conditions and under anticipated handling conditions. To accomplish this, the standard requires that the plutonium be loaded in a minimum of two nested stainless steel sealed containers that are both tested for leak-tightness per ANSI N14.5. As such the 3013 hardware is robust. While the 3013 STD may provide appropriate storage criteria, it is not intended to provide criteria for transporting the material under the requirements of the Department of Transportation (DOT). In this evaluation, it is assumed that the activity of plutonium exceeds A1 and/or A2 curies as defined in DOT 49 CFR 173.431 and therefore must be shipped as a Type B package meeting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements of 10 CFR 71. The evaluation considers Type B shipment of plutonium in the 3013 hardware within a certified package for such contents.
Date: April 15, 2004
Creator: HENSEL, SJ
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS

Description: Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n {approx} 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: SNYDER,P.B; WILSON,H.R; XU,X.Q & WEBSTER,A.J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Temperature Measurements on Shock Loaded Tin

Description: In an effort to understand the influence of different surface finishes and the effect of ejecta mass on free surface temperature measurements, we performed a series of high-explosively shocked tin experiments. In this series of experiments the surface finish (i.e., specular, shallow grooves, deep grooves, and ''ball-rolled'' surfaces) and the ambient atmosphere (from 1.2 torr, to atmospheric air, as well as 1 atm helium) were varied. With {approx}180 kbar shock pressure the temperature results agreed for all but the very deep groove surfaces investigated.
Date: September 2004
Creator: Seifter, A.; Grover, M.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Payton, J. R.; Rodriguez, P.; Turley, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for Residual Saturations and Capillary Imbibition and Drainage Pressures

Description: A pore saturation model expresses the capillary pressure as a function of a characteristic pore pressure and the wetting phase saturation. Singularity analyses of the total energies of the wetting and nonwetting phases give the residual saturations for the two phases. The total energy consists of a potential term and a work term associated with the effective pressure gradient for each phase. The derived residual wetting saturation is 0.236, and the derived residual nonwetting saturation is 0.884. The model includes separate pressures for imbibition and drainage to account for capillary hysteresis. In the model, the pressure gradient for the wetting phase defines the imbibition pressure, and the nonwetting phase pressure gradient defines the drainage pressure. At the residual nonwetting saturation, the two pressures differ by the characteristic pore pressure. The two pressures coincide at a critical minimum saturation of 0.301. The model also includes an entry head to account for the minimum force required for drainage to begin. The model utilizes a single fitting parameter, a characteristic pore pressure, which can be related to a characteristic pore diameter.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: LAURINAT, JAMESE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for Residual Saturations and Capillary Imbibition and Drainage Pressures in Granular Materials

Description: A pore saturation model expresses the capillary pressure as a function of a characteristic pore pressure and the wetting phase saturation. Singularity analyses of the total energies of the wetting and nonwetting phases give the residual saturations for the two phases. The total energy consists of a potential term and a work term associated with the effective pressure gradient for each phase. The derived residual wetting saturation is 0.236, and the derived residual nonwetting saturation is 0.884. The model includes separate pressures for imbibition and drainage to account for capillary hysteresis. In the model, the pressure gradient for the wetting phase defines the imbibition pressure, and the nonwetting phase pressure gradient defines the drainage pressure. At the residual nonwetting saturation, the two pressures differ by the characteristic pore pressure. The two pressures coincide at a critical minimum saturation of 0.301. The model also includes an entry head to account for the minimum force required for drainage to begin. The model uses a single fitting parameter, a characteristic pore pressure, which can be related to a characteristic pore diameter.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: LAURINAT, JAMESE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Conceptual Design for a Fuel Assembly of a New Research Reactor

Description: A new Research Reactor (ARR) has been under design by KAERI since 2002. In this work, as a first step for the design of the fuel assembly of the ARR, the conceptual design has been carried out. The vibration characteristics of the tubular fuel model and the locking performance of the preliminary designed locking devices were investigated. In order to investigate the effects of the stiffener on the vibration characteristics of the tubular fuel, a modal analysis was performed for the finite element models of the tubular fuels with stiffeners and without stiffeners. The analysis results show that the vibration characteristics of the tubular fuel with stiffeners are better than those of the tubular fuel without stiffeners. To investigate the locking performance of the preliminary designed locking devices for the fuel assembly of the ARR, the elements of the locking devices were fabricated. Then the torsional resistance, fixing status and vibration characteristics of the locking devices were tested. The test results show that using the locking device with fins on the bottom guide can prevent the torsional motion of the fuel assembly, and that additional springs or guides on the top of the fuel assembly are needed to suppress the lateral motion of the fuel assembly. Based on the modal analysis and experimental results, the fuel assembly and locking devices of the ARR were designed and its prototype was fabricated. The locking performance, pressure drop characteristics and vibration characteristics of the newly designed fuel assembly will be tested in the near future.
Date: October 6, 2004
Creator: Ryu, J-S.; Cho, Y-G.; Yoon, D-B.; Dan, H-J.; Chae, H-T. & Park, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-dependent photoluminescence study of ZnO nanowires

Description: The pressure dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) transition associated with the fundamental band gap of ZnO nanowires has been studied at pressures up to 15 GPa. ZnO nanowires are found to have a higher structural phase transition pressure around 12 GPa as compared to 9.0 GPa for bulk ZnO. The pressure-induced energy shift of the near band-edge luminescence emission yields a linear pressure coefficient of 29.6 meV/GPa with a small sublinear term of -0.43 meV/GPa{sup 2}. An effective hydrostatic deformation potential -3.97 eV for the direct band gap of the ZnO nanowires is derived from the result.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, S.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of x-band accelerating structures at Fermilab

Description: The RF Technology Development group at Fermilab is working together with the NLC and GLC groups at SLAC and KEK on developing technology for room temperature X-band accelerating structures for a future linear collider. We built six 60-cm long, high phase advance, detuned structures (HDS or FXB series). These structures have 150 degrees phase advance per cell, and are intended for high gradient tests. The structures were brazed in a vacuum furnace with a partial pressure of argon, rather than in a hydrogen atmosphere. We have also begun to build 60-cm long, damped and detuned structures (HDDS or FXC/FXD series). We have built 5 FXC and 1 FXD structures. Our goal was to build six structures for the 8-pack test at SLAC by the end of March 2004, as part of the GLC/NLC effort to demonstrate the readiness of room temperature RF technology for a linear collider. This paper describes the RF structure factory infrastructure (clean rooms, vacuum furnaces, vacuum equipment, RF equipment etc.), and the fabrication techniques utilized (the machining of copper cells/couplers, quality control, etching, vacuum brazing, cleanliness requirements etc.) for the production of FXB and FXC/FXD structures.
Date: July 20, 2004
Creator: al., Tug T Arkan et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Gradient Effects On Two-Dimensional Plasma Expansion

Description: Recent advances in interferometry has allowed for the characterization of the electron density expansion within a laser produced plasma to within 10 {micro}m of the target surface and over picosecond timescales. This technique employs the high brightness output of the transient gain Ni-like Pd collisional x-ray laser at 14.7 nm to construct an effective moving picture of the two-dimensional (2-D) expansion of the plasma. We present experimentally measured density profiles of an expanding Al plasma generated through laser irradiation in a 14mm line focus geometry. Significant lateral expansion was observed at all times as well as a pronounced on-axis electron density dip. Detailed modeling with a 2-D plasma physics code gives good agreement to experimental observations. Large pressure gradients associated with the tight focal spot conditions are calculated to dominate in shaping the plasma density profile.
Date: October 5, 2004
Creator: Moon, S; Smith, R F; Dunn, J; Keenan, R; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermoelasticity at High Temperatures and Pressures for Ta

Description: A new methodology for calculating high temperature and pressure elastic moduli in metals has been developed accounting for both the electron-thermal and ion-thermal contributions. Anharmonic and quasi-harmonic thermoelasticity for bcc tantalum have thereby been calculated and compared as a function of temperature (<12,000 K) and pressure (<10 Mbar). In this approach, the full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method for the cold and electron-thermal contributions is closely coupled with ion-thermal contributions obtained via multi-ion, quantum-based interatomic potentials derived from model generalized pseudopotential theory (MGPT). For the later contributions two separate approaches are used. In one approach, the quasi-harmonic ion-thermal contribution is obtained through a Brillouin zone sum of the strain derivatives of the phonons, and in the other the anharmonic ion-thermal contribution is obtained directly through Monte Carlo (MC) canonical distribution averages of strain derivatives on the multi-ion potentials themselves. The resulting elastic moduli compare well in each method and to available ultrasonic measurements and diamond-anvil-cell compression experiments indicating minimal anharmonic effects in bcc tantalum over the considered pressure range.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Orlikowski, D; Soderlind, P & Moriarty, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of NaCl + SrCl2 + H2O at 298.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-Interaction Model

Description: Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made at 298.15 K for aqueous NaCl + SrCl{sub 2} solutions, using NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. The measurements for these ternary solutions were made at NaCl ionic strength fractions of y{sub 1} = 0.17066, 0.47366, and 0.82682 for the water activity range 0.9835 {ge} a{sub w} {ge} 0.8710. Our results, and those from two previous isopiestic studies, were combined and used with previously determined parameters for NaCl(aq) and those for SrCl{sub 2}(aq) determined here to evaluate the mixing parameters{sup S}{Theta}{sub Na,Sr} = (0.0562 {+-} 0.0007) kg {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Psi}{sub Na,Sr,Cl} = -(0.00705 {+-} 0.00017) kg{sup 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -2} for an extended form of Pitzer's ion-interaction model. These model parameters are valid for ionic strengths of I {le} 7.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, where higher-order electrostatic effects have been included in the mixture model. If the fitting range is extended to the saturated solution molalities, then {sup S}{Theta}{sub Na,Sr} = (0.07885 {+-} 0.00195) kg {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Psi}{sub Na,Sr,Cl} = -(0.01230 {+-} 0.00033) kg{sup 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -2}. The extended ion-interaction model parameters obtained from available isopiestic data for SrCl{sub 2}(aq) at 298.15 K yield recommended values of the water activities and osmotic and activity coefficients.
Date: November 9, 2004
Creator: Clegg, S L; Rard, J A & Miller, D G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Violence of High Explosive Reactions

Description: High explosive reactions can be caused by three general energy deposition processes: impact ignition by frictional and/or shear heating; bulk thermal heating; and shock compression. The violence of the subsequent reaction varies from benign slow combustion to catastrophic detonation of the entire charge. The degree of violence depends on many variables, including the rate of energy delivery, the physical and chemical properties of the explosive, and the strength of the confinement surrounding the explosive charge. The current state of experimental and computer modeling research on the violence of impact, thermal, and shock-induced reactions is reviewed.
Date: February 9, 2004
Creator: Tarver, C M & Chidester, S K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MHD Spectroscopy

Description: Experiments are conducted on the JET tokamak to assess the diagnostic potential of MHD active and passive spectroscopy, for the plasma bulk and its suprathermal components, using Alfv{acute e}n Eigenmodes (AEs) excited by external antennas and by energetic particles. The measurements of AE frequencies and mode numbers give information on the bulk plasma. Improved equilibrium reconstruction, in particular in terms of radial profiles of density and safety factor, is possible from the comparison between the antenna driven spectrum and that calculated theoretically. Details of the time evolution of the non-monotonic safety factor profile in advanced scenarios can be reconstructed from the frequency of ICRH-driven energetic particle modes. The plasma effective mass can be inferred from the resonant frequency of externally driven AEs in discharges with similar equilibrium profiles. The stability thresholds and the nonlinear development of the instabilities can give clues on energy and spatial distribution of the fast particle population. The presence of unstable AEs provides lower limits in the energy of ICRH generated fast ion tails. Fast ion pressure gradients and their evolution can be inferred from the stability of AEs at different plasma radial positions. Finally, the details of the AE spectrum in the nonlinear stage can be used to obtain information about the fast particle velocity space diffusion.
Date: March 23, 2004
Creator: Heeter, R F; Fasoli, A; Testa, D; Sharapov, S; Berk, H L; Breizman, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of three commercially available technologies forreal-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

Description: During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurements technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of three commercially available measurement technologies are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The three commercially available measurement technologies should provide reasonably, e.g., 20%, accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.
Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David & Sullivan, Douglas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technologies for measuring flow rates of outdoor air into HVACsystems: Some causes and suggested cures for measurement errors

Description: Although the rate of outdoor air (OA) ventilation has a substantial influence on building energy consumption and occupant health, the available data indicate the outdoor air ventilation rates are poorly controlled in many buildings. Technologies being marketed for real time measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air into HVAC systems should enable better control of OA ventilation. In laboratory research they have studied the performance of these technologies. Sources of measurement errors identified during conduct of this research include: low air speeds; high spatial variability in air speed and direction; large eddies downstream of outdoor air intake louvers; and backwards airflow through a portion of outdoor air dampers. Several suggestions for overcoming these sources of errors were developed including: design and control of the outdoor air intake system to avoid low, hard-to measure, air speeds; use of highly sensitive pressure and velocity sensors; measuring air speeds between blades of louvers, rather than downstream of louvers; smoothing out the airflow between the outdoor air louver and damper through proper louver selection and insertion of components to straighten air flow; and maintaining a pressure drop across the outdoor air damper that exceeds approximately 0.04 IWG (10 Pa).
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David & Sullivan, Douglas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boiling Visualization and Critical Heat Flux Phenomena In Narrow Rectangular Gap

Description: An experimental study was performed to investifate the pool boling critical hear flux (CHF) on one-dimensional inclined rectangular channels with narrow gaps by changing the orientation of a copper test heater assembly. In a pool of saturated water at atmospheric pressure, the test parameters include the gap sizes of 1,2,5, and 10 mm, andthe surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180 degrees) to the vertical position (90 degress) respectively.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Kim, J. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, S. J.; Noh, S. W.; Suh, K. Y.; Rempe, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibrational Spectroscopy of Fe(OH)2 at High Pressure: Behavior of the O-H Bond

Description: Infrared and Raman spectra of Fe(OH){sub 2}, ''white rust'', were measured between 7 GPa and 21 GPa at ambient temperature. The frequency of the infrared-active A{sub 2u} and of the Raman-active A1g stretching modes of the O-H group decrease linearly with pressure with slopes of -1.3 {+-} 0.1 cm{sup -1}/GPa and -4.9 {+-} 0.2 cm{sup -1}/GPa, respectively. The peak widths of both the infrared-active and Raman-active modes increase non-linearly with pressure, with a discontinuous increase of in broadening between 10 and 12.5 GPa. The overall broadening of the A{sub 2u} and of the A{sub 1g} stretching modes is approximately four-fold in the examined pressure range. The results of this spectroscopic study are compatible with the trends observed in recent neutron diffraction studies in the isostructural Co(OH){sub 2}. Progressive pressure-induced H disordering could be a viable model to interpret both the broadening of the OH stretching mode and the changes in oxidation state of Fe recently observed by Moessbauer spectroscopy.
Date: November 9, 2004
Creator: Speziale, S; Jeanloz, R; Milner, A; Pasternak, M P & Zaug, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

Description: In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Kim, Jeong J.; Kim, Yong H.; Kim, Seong J.; Noh, Sang W.; Suh, Kune Y.; Rempe, Joy L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification and Validation of The Tritium Transport Code TMAP7

Description: The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it has been upgraded several times and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its most recent upgrade to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. Prior versions had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT. That has been removed. Under pre-specified boundary enclosure conditions and solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions, such as Sieverts' law, TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in molecule formation with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not, themselves, diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy and includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the previously existing features for heat transfer, flows between enclosures, and chemical reactions within the ...
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Longhurst, Glen R. & Ambrosek, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 by a Potentiodynamic-Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Method

Description: Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel-based alloy highly resistant to corrosion. In some aggressive conditions of high chloride concentration, temperature and applied potential, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion. There are several electrochemical methods that can be used to determine localized corrosion in metallic alloys. One of the most popular for rapid screening is the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP). This work compares the results obtained by measuring the localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 using both CPP and the more cumbersome Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical (THE) method. The electrolytes used were 1 M NaCl and 5 M CaCl{sub 2}, both at 90 C. Results show that similar repassivation potentials were obtained for Alloy 22 using both methods. That is, in cases where localized corrosion is observed using the fast CPP method, there is no need to use THE method since it takes ten times longer to obtain comparable results in spite that the mode of corrosion attack that results in the tested specimens are different.
Date: March 11, 2004
Creator: Evans, Kenneth J.; Wong, Lana L. & Rebak, Raul B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department