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POTENTIAL FOR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS CONTAINING HIGHLY CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS

Description: The evaporator recycle streams of nuclear waste tanks may contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that exceeds the current corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history found that two of these A537 carbon steel tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved tanks of similar construction. Therefore, it appears that the efficacy of stress relief of welding residual stress is the primary corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test A537 carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (30.48 x 30.38 x 2.54 cm) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in these nuclear waste tanks. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test was completed after 12 weeks of immersion in a similar solution at 125 C except that the aluminate concentration was reduced to 0.3 M. Visual inspection of the plate revealed that stress corrosion cracking had not initiated from the machined crack tips in the weld or in the heat affected zone. NDE ultrasonic testing also confirmed subsurface cracking did not occur. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the environmental condition of these tests was unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the test periods for the small welded U-bends and for the large plates, which were welded with an identical procedure as used ...
Date: April 26, 2010
Creator: Lam, P.; Stripling, C.; Fisher, D. & Elder, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cobra-IE Evaluation by Simulation of the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT)

Description: The COBRA-IE computer code is a thermal-hydraulic subchannel analysis program capable of simulating phenomena present in both PWRs and BWRs. As part of ongoing COBRA-IE assessment efforts, the code has been evaluated against experimental data from the NUPEC BWR Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT). The BFBT experiments utilized an 8 x 8 rod bundle to simulate BWR operating conditions and power profiles, providing an excellent database for investigation of the capabilities of the code. Benchmarks performed included steady-state and transient void distribution, single-phase and two-phase pressure drop, and steady-state and transient critical power measurements. COBRA-IE effectively captured the trends seen in the experimental data with acceptable prediction error. Future sensitivity studies are planned to investigate the effects of enabling and/or modifying optional code models dealing with void drift, turbulent mixing, rewetting, and CHF.
Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Burns, C. J. and Aumiler, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls

Description: A fusion power plant is described that utilizes a new version of the tandem mirror device including spinning liquid walls. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an axisymmetric equilibrium code predicting an average beta of 60%. The geometry allows a flowing molten salt, (flibe-Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), which protects the walls and structures from damage arising from neutrons and plasma particles. The free surface between the liquid and the burning plasma is heated by bremsstrahlung radiation, line radiation, and by neutrons. The temperature of the free surface of the liquid is calculated, and then the evaporation rate is estimated from vapor-pressure data. The allowed impurity concentration in the burning plasma is taken as 1% fluorine, which gives a 17% reduction in the fusion power owing to D/T fuel dilution, with F line-radiation causing minor power degradation. The end leakage power density of 0.6 MW/m{sup 2} is readily handled by liquid jets. The tritium breeding is adequate with natural lithium. A number of problem areas are identified that need further study to make the design more self-consistent and workable; however, the simple geometry and the use of liquid walls promise the cost of power competitive with that from fission and coal.
Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Moir, R W & Rognlien, T D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-Ray Diffraction and Raman Studies of Beryllium: Static and Elastic Properties at High Pressures

Description: We report combined x-ray and Raman studies of beryllium in helium or argon pressure medium at pressures approaching 200 GPa. Our results are generally consistent with recent studies confirming the stability of the hexagonal close-packed phase to the highest pressures. However, the quasi-hydrostatic conditions of our studies lead to a stiffer equation of state (K{sub 0} = 109.88, K'{sub 0} = 3.59) and a gradual approach toward a more ideal c/a ratio of 1.60 at 180 GPa. Combining our Raman and EOS data, we are able to evaluate the pressure dependence of the elastic shear modulus (C{sub 44} = 109.3, C'{sub 44} = 1.959). We discuss the comparison of our results with measurements using ultrasonic and dynamic techniques.
Date: April 26, 2005
Creator: Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Cynn, H; Yoo, C S; Somayazulu, M; Hausermann, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Prospecting using Hyperspectral Imaging and Field Observations, Dixie Meadows, NV

Description: In an ongoing project to relate surface hydrothermal alteration to structurally controlled geothermal aquifers, we mapped a 16 km swath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Range using Hyperspectral fault and mineral mapping techniques. The Dixie Valley Fault system produces a large fractured aquifer heating Pleistocene aged groundwater to a temperature of 285 C at 5-6 km. Periodically over the last several thousand years, seismic events have pushed these heated fluids to the surface, leaving a rich history of hydrothermal alteration in the Stillwater Mountains. At Dixie Hot Springs, the potentiometric surface of the aquifer intersects the surface, and 75 C waters flow into the valley. We find a high concentration of alunite, kaolinite, and dickite on the exposed fault surface directly adjacent to a series of active fumaroles on the range front fault. This assemblage of minerals implies interaction with water in excess of 200 C. Field spectra support the location of the high temperature mineralization. Fault mapping using a Digital Elevation Model in combination with mineral lineation and field studies shows that complex fault interactions in this region are improving permeability in the region leading to unconfined fluid flow to the surface. Seismic studies conducted 10 km to the south of Dixie Meadows show that the range front fault dips 25-30 to the southeast (Abbott et al., 2001). At Dixie Meadows, the fault dips 35 to the southeast, demonstrating that this region is part of the low angle normal fault system that produced the Dixie Valley Earthquake in 1954 (M=6.8). We conclude that this unusually low angle faulting may have been accommodated by the presence of heated fluids, increasing pore pressure within the fault zone. We also find that younger synthetic faulting is occurring at more typical high angles. In an effort to present these findings visually, ...
Date: April 26, 2004
Creator: Kennedy-Bowdoin, T; Silver, E; Martini, B & Pickles, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acoustic emission experiments for safety of nuclear reactor vessels

Description: Acoustic emission monitoring was used in hydrostatic experiments on flawed pressure vessels and thermal shock experiments on flawed cylindrical specimens. The results of the experiments are discussed.
Date: April 26, 1976
Creator: Ying, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department