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Near-equilibrium polymorphic phase transformations in Praseodymium under dynamic compression

Description: We report the first experimental observation of sequential, multiple polymorphic phase transformations occurring in Praseodymium dynamically compressed using a ramp wave. The experiments also display the signatures of reverse transformations occuring upon pressure release and reveal the presence of small hysteresys loops. The results are in very good agreement with equilibrium hydrodynamic calculations performed using a thermodynamically consistent, multi-phase equation of state for Praseodymium, suggesting a near-equilibrium transformation behavior.
Date: February 12, 2007
Creator: Bastea, M & Reisman, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Device and method for remotely venting a container

Description: Numerous incidents of fire, explosion, and ground contamination have occurred at various facilities over the last several years due to drum rupture on account of overpressurization. These incidents frequently are caused by an ignition source or a reaction between incompatible materials. The incidents may also occur simply as a result of climatic changes causing the drum to be over pressurized. A device for venting a container having a bung includes a saddle assembly securable to a container and having a support extending therefrom. A first arm is rotatably secured to the support, and the first arm extends in a first direction. A second arm has a first end portion drivingly engaged with the first arm, so that rotation of the first arm causes rotation of the second arm. A second end portion of the first arm is positionable proximate the bung of the container. A socket is operably associated and rotatable with the second end portion and is drivingly engageable with the bung, so that rotation of the socket causes corresponding rotation of the bung for thereby venting the container.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Vodila, J.M. & Bergersen, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure relief subsystem design description

Description: The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.
Date: July 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure relief radial passages for SSC

Description: In the 40 mm SSC cross-section design radial helium venting passages located every 6 inches were present. The purpose of these passages was to provide escape routes for helium from the coil cooling passage to the bypasses during a quench. The passages are introduced in the magnet by placing special yoke laminations with channels going from the bypasses to the inner radius. The question as to whether the venting passages are still needed in the 50 mm design is addressed here. One might expect that they would be more needed here since the stored magnetic field energy increases considerably faster than the coil cooling passage cross-section, unless the width of the latter is increased. Since the dimensions of the beam tube are not fixed at this time two cases are considered: a coil cooling passage gap of 1.3 mm and one of 5 mm. An existing computer code developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by R.P. Shutt and programmed by K. Jellet is applied to the present problem. Pressures, helium, coil and yoke temperatures, and mass flows are computed during a quench for one magnet with no venting occurring in the interconnect regions. Only one magnet is considered here as opposed to a string of magnets.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Rehak, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure reversal study through tensile tests

Description: This paper is a summary of the results from a study of the variables related to pressure reversal and was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety. The circumferential pipe stress, which is the most significant variable in pressure reversal, was examined by using tensile specimens and then relating the results to pressurized pipe. A model is proposed that gives some insight into how pressure reversal can be minimized when a section of pipe is being hydrotested. Twenty tensile specimens from X-42 electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe and twenty specimens from X-52 ERW pipe were tested. Each specimen had a machined flaw. The flaw regions were monitored using strain gages and photoelasticity. These tensile tests represent the first phase of a research effort to examine and understand the variables related to pressure reversal. The second phase of this effort will be with pipe specimens and presently is in progress.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Swinson, W. F.; Battiste, R. L.; Wright, A. L.; Yahr, G. T. & Robertson, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

Description: The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible formation of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the buildup of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be the main contributors during waste transport operations. In this paper, the authors provide a review of applicable gas generation data resulting from the degradation of various waste forms under conditions typical for transport. The effects of radiolytic and thermal degradation mechanisms will be discussed in the context of transportation safety.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Nigrey, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

Description: This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: KAMBERG, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure relief radial passages for SSC

Description: In the 40 mm SSC cross-section design radial helium venting passages located every 6 inches were present. The purpose of these passages was to provide escape routes for helium from the coil cooling passage to the bypasses during a quench. The passages are introduced in the magnet by placing special yoke laminations with channels going from the bypasses to the inner radius. The question as to whether the venting passages are still needed in the 50 mm design is addressed here. One might expect that they would be more needed here since the stored magnetic field energy increases considerably faster than the coil cooling passage cross-section, unless the width of the latter is increased. Since the dimensions of the beam tube are not fixed at this time two cases are considered: a coil cooling passage gap of 1.3 mm and one of 5 mm. An existing computer code developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by R.P. Shutt and programmed by K. Jellet is applied to the present problem. Pressures, helium, coil and yoke temperatures, and mass flows are computed during a quench for one magnet with no venting occurring in the interconnect regions. Only one magnet is considered here as opposed to a string of magnets.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Rehak, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amplified-response-spectrum analysis of sodium-water reaction pressure waves. [LMFBR]

Description: This report deals with a frequency spectrum evaluation of the SWAAM I predicted double rupture disc assembly operation pressure wave generated in the LLTR Series II A-2 test. It also evaluates the same wave predicted by the TRANSWRAP II code and the pressure wave actually measured upstream of the rupture disc assembly by the test instrumentation in Test A-2. The SWAAM I and TRANSWRAP II codes currently use the same analytical model to characterize the rupture disc until the disc strikes the knife edges. Thereafter, the SWAAM I code relies on analytical techniques to characterize the phenomena, whereas the TRANSWRAP II code uses empirical parameters based on A-2 test data to represent the disc behavior. Any differences in the predicted dynamic pipe loads caused by double rupture disc assembly operation, using the forcing functions predicted by the codes can, therefore, be traced to this difference.
Date: October 28, 1981
Creator: Knittle, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

Description: This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Latorre, V.R. & Mayn, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

Description: The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: First, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

Description: The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and electricity supply markets, they also offer the potential to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable electricity infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner electricity and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to electricity or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and ...
Date: August 3, 2005
Creator: Bailey, Owen & Worrell, Ernst
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analytical model for calculating pressure rise in a room due to refrigerant spills from piping rupture

Description: In this paper, an analytical model is presented to describe quasi- steady release of a two-phase refrigerant mixture into a room and the associated pressure transient of the room atmosphere with limited capability to discharge the atmosphere. The analytical model is based on simple, approximate thermodynamic relationships applied along isentropes, which is used to describe the release of refrigerant and the coupled set of equation of energy and mass conservation and other auxiliary equations describing pressure transient of a room atmosphere. The analytical model, which consists of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, is solved numerically by the Mathematica computer program. As an example the safety problem of a Freon-22 spill in a refrigeration equipment room, resulting from piping rupture due to an earthquake, is analyzed and discussed.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Shin, Y.W.; Hsieh, B.J. & Kot, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear fluid/structure interaction relating a rupture-disc pressure-relief device. [LMFBR]

Description: Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device. The reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. This assembly is used successfully in systems in which the fluid is highly compressible, such as air; the opening up of the disc by the knife setup is complete. However, this is not true for a liquid system; it had been observed experimentally that the disc may open up only partially or not at all. Therefore, to realistically understand and represent a rupture disc assembly in a liquid environment, the fluid-structure interactions between the liquid medium and the disc assembly must be considered. The methods for analyzing the fluid and the disc and the mechanism interconnecting them are presented. The fluid is allowed to cavitate through a column-cavitation model and the disc is allowed to become plastically deformed through the classic Von Mises' yield criteria, when necessary.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Shin, Y.W. & Youngdahl, C.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of the US-CRBRP sodium/water reaction pressure relief system

Description: Protection against intermediate sodium system overpressure from the sodium/water reaction associated with large leaks within the CRBRP Steam Generators is provided by the sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS). This system consists of rupture disks connected to the intermediate sodium piping adjacent to the inlet to the superheater and outlet from the evaporator modules. The rupture discs relieve into piping that leads to reaction produce separator tanks, which in turn are vented to a centrifugal separator and flare stack arranged to burn hydrogen gas exhausting into the atmosphere. Analyses have been conducted using the TRANSWRAP Computer Code to predict the system pressures and flow rates during the large leak event. Experimental tests to be conducted in the large leak test rig (LLTR) will be used to confirm the analysis techniques used in the design.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Kruger, G.B.; Murdock, T.B.; Rodwell, E. & Sane, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk evaluation of the containment overpressure relief system in a BWR-4, Mark-II nuclear power plant

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of a Containment Overpressure Relief (COR) system in a BWR-4, Mark-II nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices that are related to the frequency of core damage, the early fatalities, and the latent fatalities that might result from an accident in the plant. The evaluation of the COR is based on the Probabilistic Risk Assessment Study of the Limerick Generating Station as it was revised by BNL. Two analyses were performed; one assumes that the design of the plant does not include the COR system and the other assumes that it is included. The risk indices are evaluated in both cases and compared.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Papazoglou, I.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K. & Bari, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

Description: This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Latorre, V.R. & Mayn, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design criteria and concepts for vented containment systems

Description: Accident sequences from WASH-1400 were selected and analyzed with the MARCH/CORRAL code to provide an envelope of design conditions. The time-dependent pressures and temperatures in containment were calculated as were the concentrations of steam, noncondensible gases, and airborne fission products in the containment atmosphere. The phenomenon found to be most challenging to containment integrity was a pressure spike resulting from rapid steam generation and/or hydrogen burning. The peak pressures in some sequences exceed the likely failure pressure. Conceptual designs were developed for preserving containment integrity. These include containment pressure relief or depressurization with various venting rates. Anticipatory venting, venting to the atmosphere, venting to a separate building, and venting followed by recirculation back into containment are considered. The effects of these schemes on the important system parameters were identified. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative schemes and their implications for the design of filtration equipment are discussed. For each venting strategy several levels of filtering effectiveness were considered. The simplest option developed is a once-through gravel-filled suppression pool. More sophisticated options involved sand filters, molecular sieves, charcoal adsorbers and HEPA filters. Results of accident consequence calculations using the CRAC code indicate the relatively simple options can provide substantial reductions in consequences of certain accident sequences. 12 figures.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Walling, H.C.; Benjamin, A.S. & Cybulskis, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

Description: A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Shin, Y.W. & Wiedermann, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon liquid-helium dewar

Description: The writing of a computer program to calculate the pressure rise in the CHL 5000-gallon dewar was motivated by the writing of a Fermilab engineering note on the safety of the dewar which is presently being installed at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier. The calculation is intended to verify that the pressure in the inner vessel will not rise above a safe level in a catastrophic venting situation.
Date: January 4, 1983
Creator: Walker, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of initial fluid-system pressures on the behavior of a rupture-disc pressure-relief device

Description: Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device to protect the system from being exposed to excess pressures. Among the various disc assemblies, the reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. This rupture-disc assembly consists of a portion of a thin spherical shell with its convex side subjected to the fluid system. The reverse-buckling type rupture disc assemblies have been used successfully in environments where the fluid is gas, i.e. highly compressible, and their performances have been judged as adequate in the liquid environment. To analyze the piping system, an analysis method is needed taking into consideration of the fluid/disc interaction, the nonlinear dynamic buckling phenomenon of the disc, and the possible cavitation of the fluid. A computer code SWAAM-I had been written at the Components Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory. Among its many functions, one is to compute the response of 1-dimensional pressure pulse propagation including the effects of many different types of boundary conditions and possible pipe plasticity.
Date: 1983~
Creator: Hsieh, B. J.; Shin, Y. W. & Kot, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High level waste (HLW) steam reducing station evaluation

Description: Existing pressure equipment in High Level Waste does not have a documented technical baseline. Based on preliminary reviews, the existing equipment seems to be based on system required capacity instead of system capability. A planned approach to establish a technical baseline began September 1992 and used the Works Management System preventive maintenance schedule. Several issues with relief valves being undersized on steam reducing stations created a need to determine the risk of maintaining the steam in service. An Action Plan was developed to evaluate relief valves that did not have technical baselines and provided a path forward for continued operation. Based on Action Plan WER-HLE-931042, the steam systems will remain in service while the designs are being developed and implemented.
Date: September 29, 1993
Creator: Gannon, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

Description: The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).
Date: May 22, 2000
Creator: BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N. & ANDERSON,R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department