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Near-equilibrium polymorphic phase transformations in Praseodymium under dynamic compression

Description: We report the first experimental observation of sequential, multiple polymorphic phase transformations occurring in Praseodymium dynamically compressed using a ramp wave. The experiments also display the signatures of reverse transformations occuring upon pressure release and reveal the presence of small hysteresys loops. The results are in very good agreement with equilibrium hydrodynamic calculations performed using a thermodynamically consistent, multi-phase equation of state for Praseodymium, suggesting a near-equilibrium transformation behavior.
Date: February 12, 2007
Creator: Bastea, M & Reisman, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Device and method for remotely venting a container

Description: Numerous incidents of fire, explosion, and ground contamination have occurred at various facilities over the last several years due to drum rupture on account of overpressurization. These incidents frequently are caused by an ignition source or a reaction between incompatible materials. The incidents may also occur simply as a result of climatic changes causing the drum to be over pressurized. A device for venting a container having a bung includes a saddle assembly securable to a container and having a support extending therefrom. A first arm is rotatably secured to the support, and the first arm extends in a first direction. A second arm has a first end portion drivingly engaged with the first arm, so that rotation of the first arm causes rotation of the second arm. A second end portion of the first arm is positionable proximate the bung of the container. A socket is operably associated and rotatable with the second end portion and is drivingly engageable with the bung, so that rotation of the socket causes corresponding rotation of the bung for thereby venting the container.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Vodila, J.M. & Bergersen, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure relief subsystem design description

Description: The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.
Date: July 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure reversal study through tensile tests

Description: This paper is a summary of the results from a study of the variables related to pressure reversal and was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety. The circumferential pipe stress, which is the most significant variable in pressure reversal, was examined by using tensile specimens and then relating the results to pressurized pipe. A model is proposed that gives some insight into how pressure reversal can be minimized when a section of pipe is being hydrotested. Twenty tensile specimens from X-42 electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe and twenty specimens from X-52 ERW pipe were tested. Each specimen had a machined flaw. The flaw regions were monitored using strain gages and photoelasticity. These tensile tests represent the first phase of a research effort to examine and understand the variables related to pressure reversal. The second phase of this effort will be with pipe specimens and presently is in progress.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Swinson, W. F.; Battiste, R. L.; Wright, A. L.; Yahr, G. T. & Robertson, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

Description: The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible formation of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the buildup of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be the main contributors during waste transport operations. In this paper, the authors provide a review of applicable gas generation data resulting from the degradation of various waste forms under conditions typical for transport. The effects of radiolytic and thermal degradation mechanisms will be discussed in the context of transportation safety.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Nigrey, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

Description: This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: KAMBERG, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amplified-response-spectrum analysis of sodium-water reaction pressure waves. [LMFBR]

Description: This report deals with a frequency spectrum evaluation of the SWAAM I predicted double rupture disc assembly operation pressure wave generated in the LLTR Series II A-2 test. It also evaluates the same wave predicted by the TRANSWRAP II code and the pressure wave actually measured upstream of the rupture disc assembly by the test instrumentation in Test A-2. The SWAAM I and TRANSWRAP II codes currently use the same analytical model to characterize the rupture disc until the disc strikes the knife edges. Thereafter, the SWAAM I code relies on analytical techniques to characterize the phenomena, whereas the TRANSWRAP II code uses empirical parameters based on A-2 test data to represent the disc behavior. Any differences in the predicted dynamic pipe loads caused by double rupture disc assembly operation, using the forcing functions predicted by the codes can, therefore, be traced to this difference.
Date: October 28, 1981
Creator: Knittle, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

Description: This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Latorre, V.R. & Mayn, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

Description: The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: First, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

Description: The nation's power system is facing a diverse and broad set of challenges. These range from restructuring and increased competitiveness in power production to the need for additional production and distribution capacity to meet demand growth, and demands for increased quality and reliability of power and power supply. In addition, there are growing concerns about emissions from fossil fuel powered generation units and generators are seeking methods to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission intensity of power generation. Although these challenges may create uncertainty within the financial and electricity supply markets, they also offer the potential to explore new opportunities to support the accelerated deployment of cleaner and cost-effective technologies to meet such challenges. The federal government and various state governments, for example, support the development of a sustainable electricity infrastructure. As part of this policy, there are a variety of programs to support the development of ''cleaner'' technologies such as combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration) and renewable energy technologies. Energy from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, are considered carbon-neutral energy technologies. The production of renewable energy creates no incremental increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from all renewable resources, except biomass, produces no incremental increase in air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. There are many more opportunities for the development of cleaner electricity and thermal energy technologies called ''recycled'' energy. A process using fossil fuels to produce an energy service may have residual energy waste streams that may be recycled into useful energy services. Recycled energy methods would capture energy from sources that would otherwise be unused and convert it to electricity or useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and ...
Date: August 3, 2005
Creator: Bailey, Owen & Worrell, Ernst
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analytical model for calculating pressure rise in a room due to refrigerant spills from piping rupture

Description: In this paper, an analytical model is presented to describe quasi- steady release of a two-phase refrigerant mixture into a room and the associated pressure transient of the room atmosphere with limited capability to discharge the atmosphere. The analytical model is based on simple, approximate thermodynamic relationships applied along isentropes, which is used to describe the release of refrigerant and the coupled set of equation of energy and mass conservation and other auxiliary equations describing pressure transient of a room atmosphere. The analytical model, which consists of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, is solved numerically by the Mathematica computer program. As an example the safety problem of a Freon-22 spill in a refrigeration equipment room, resulting from piping rupture due to an earthquake, is analyzed and discussed.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Shin, Y.W.; Hsieh, B.J. & Kot, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear fluid/structure interaction relating a rupture-disc pressure-relief device. [LMFBR]

Description: Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device. The reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. This assembly is used successfully in systems in which the fluid is highly compressible, such as air; the opening up of the disc by the knife setup is complete. However, this is not true for a liquid system; it had been observed experimentally that the disc may open up only partially or not at all. Therefore, to realistically understand and represent a rupture disc assembly in a liquid environment, the fluid-structure interactions between the liquid medium and the disc assembly must be considered. The methods for analyzing the fluid and the disc and the mechanism interconnecting them are presented. The fluid is allowed to cavitate through a column-cavitation model and the disc is allowed to become plastically deformed through the classic Von Mises' yield criteria, when necessary.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Shin, Y.W. & Youngdahl, C.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of the US-CRBRP sodium/water reaction pressure relief system

Description: Protection against intermediate sodium system overpressure from the sodium/water reaction associated with large leaks within the CRBRP Steam Generators is provided by the sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS). This system consists of rupture disks connected to the intermediate sodium piping adjacent to the inlet to the superheater and outlet from the evaporator modules. The rupture discs relieve into piping that leads to reaction produce separator tanks, which in turn are vented to a centrifugal separator and flare stack arranged to burn hydrogen gas exhausting into the atmosphere. Analyses have been conducted using the TRANSWRAP Computer Code to predict the system pressures and flow rates during the large leak event. Experimental tests to be conducted in the large leak test rig (LLTR) will be used to confirm the analysis techniques used in the design.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Kruger, G.B.; Murdock, T.B.; Rodwell, E. & Sane, J.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk evaluation of the containment overpressure relief system in a BWR-4, Mark-II nuclear power plant

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present a risk evaluation of a Containment Overpressure Relief (COR) system in a BWR-4, Mark-II nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices that are related to the frequency of core damage, the early fatalities, and the latent fatalities that might result from an accident in the plant. The evaluation of the COR is based on the Probabilistic Risk Assessment Study of the Limerick Generating Station as it was revised by BNL. Two analyses were performed; one assumes that the design of the plant does not include the COR system and the other assumes that it is included. The risk indices are evaluated in both cases and compared.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Papazoglou, I.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K. & Bari, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

Description: This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Latorre, V.R. & Mayn, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

Description: The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).
Date: May 22, 2000
Creator: BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N. & ANDERSON,R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLTR relief system materials evaluation. [LMFBR]

Description: The scope of Subtask Y4, Sodium/Water Reaction Recovery of Work Package Task Number SG037, Large Sodium/Water Reaction Test and Analysis, is to establish procedures for LMFBR plant cleanup and recovery following sodium/water reaction (SWR) events. Encompassed within the recovery aspects of this scope is the evaluation of steam generator and relief systems material behavior following SWR events. Of particular concern is the potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that may occur in the steam generator and sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS) during or following SWR events. The large leak test programs carried out at Energy Technology Engineering Center provide the opportunities for conducting the necessary materials evaluation work.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Roit, W.J. & Ring, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department