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Dynamic Line Rating Oncor Electric Delivery Smart Grid Program

Description: Electric transmission lines are the lifeline of the electric utility industry, delivering its product from source to consumer. This critical infrastructure is often constrained such that there is inadequate capacity on existing transmission lines to efficiently deliver the power to meet demand in certain areas or to transport energy from high-generation areas to high-consumption regions. When this happens, the cost of the energy rises; more costly sources of power are used to meet the demand or the system operates less reliably. These economic impacts are known as congestion, and they can amount to substantial dollars for any time frame of reference: hour, day or year. There are several solutions to the transmission constraint problem, including: construction of new generation, construction of new transmission facilities, rebuilding and reconductoring of existing transmission assets, and Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). All of these options except DLR are capital intensive, have long lead times and often experience strong public and regulatory opposition. The Smart Grid Demonstration Program (SGDP) project co-funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oncor Electric Delivery Company developed and deployed the most extensive and advanced DLR installation to demonstrate that DLR technology is capable of resolving many transmission capacity constraint problems with a system that is reliable, safe and very cost competitive. The SGDP DLR deployment is the first application of DLR technology to feed transmission line real-time dynamic ratings directly into the system operation’s State Estimator and load dispatch program, which optimizes the matching of generation with load demand on a security, reliability and economic basis. The integrated Dynamic Line Rating (iDLR)1 collects transmission line parameters at remote locations on the lines, calculates the real-time line rating based on the equivalent conductor temperature, ambient temperature and influence of wind and solar radiation on the stringing section, transmits the data to ...
Date: May 4, 2013
Creator: Johnson, Justin; Smith, Cale; Young, Mike; Donohoo, Ken; Owen, Ross; Clark, Eddit et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ElGENANALYSlS OF LARGE ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

Description: Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Eigenanalysis is one of the tools used to analyze the behavior of these systems. Standard eigenvalue methods require that simplified models be used for these analyses; however, these simplified models do not adequately model all of the characteristics of large power systems. Thus, new eigenanalysis methods that can analyze detailed power system models are required. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were I) to determine the availability of eigenanalysis algorithms that are better than methods currently being applied and that could be used an large power systems and 2) to determine if vector supercomputers could be used to significantly increase the size of power systems that can be analyzed by a standard power system eigenanalysis code. At the request of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a literature review of methods currently used for the eigenanalysis of large electric power systems, as well as of general eigenanalysis algorithms that are applicable to large power systems. PNL found that a number of methods are currently being used for the this purpose, and all seem to work fairly well. Furthermore, most of the general eigenanalysis techniques that are applicable to power systems have been tried on these systems, and most seem to work fairly well. One of these techniques, a variation of the Arnoldi method, has been incorporated into a standard power system eigenanalysis package. Overall, it appears that the general purpose eigenanalysis methods are more versatile than most of the other methods that have been used for power systems eigenanalysis. In addition, they are generally easier to use. For some problems, however, it appears that some of the other eigenanalysis methods ...
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Elwood, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters

Description: Zenergy Power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the US electrical grid a saturable reactor Fault Current Limiter. Beginning in 2007, first as SC Power Systems and from 2008 as Zenergy Power, Inc., ZP used DOE matching grant and ARRA funds to help refine the design of the saturated reactor fault current limiter. ZP ultimately perfected the design of the saturated reactor FCL to the point that ZP could reliably design a suitable FCL for most utility applications. Beginning with a very basic FCL design using 1G HTS for a coil housed in a LN2 cryostat for the DC bias magnet, the technology progressed to a commercial system that was offered for sale internationally. Substantial progress was made in two areas. First, the cryogenics cooling system progressed from a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen container housing the HTS coils to cryostats utilizing dry conduction cooling and reaching temperatures down to less than 20 degrees K. Large, round cryostats with “warm bore” diameters of 1.7 meters enabled the design of large tanks to hold the AC components. Second, the design of the AC part of the FCL was refined from a six legged “spider” design to a more compact and lighter design with better fault current limiting capability. Further refinement of the flux path and core shape led to an efficient saturated reactor design requiring less Ampere-turns to saturate the core. In conclusion, the development of the saturable reactor FCL led to a more efficient design not requiring HTS magnets and their associated peripheral equipment, which yielded a more economical product in line with the electric utility industry expectations. The original goal for the DOE funding of the ZP project “Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters” was to stimulate the HTS wire industry with, first ...
Date: October 31, 2011
Creator: Darmann, Frank; Lombaerde, Robert; Moriconi, Franco & Nelson, Albert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pecan Street Smart Grid Extension Service at the University of Texas

Description: Through funding from the Department of Energy’s Electricity Delivery and Reliability Office, Pecan Street Inc., in partnership with Austin Energy and Oncor, developed and tested third- party data access platforms and services for Green Button offerings and for other home energy use data providers. As more utilities seek to offer Green Button-compliant data to their customers, the question continually arises of how this data can be used to help customers better manage their energy use.
Date: November 19, 2013
Creator: McCracken, Brewster
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

Description: The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation – all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU’s overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory’s focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of electrical power distribution system that integrates significant quantities of renewable and distributed energy ...
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: Troxell, Wade
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report

Description: This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Tobin, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

Description: The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Markiewicz, Daniel R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

Description: In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI's rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.
Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Phillips, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report on the project to develop recommendations on effective linkages between state IRP, facility siting and regional transmission planning in a competitive environment. Final report, May 24, 1994--March 31, 1995

Description: This project, which began on May 1, 1994, was designed to: improve the understanding of the types of linkages (or lack of linkages) between utility-specific IRP, state facility siting, and regional transmission planning given (1) the current level of competition, (2) increased generation competition, and (3) retail competition; identify opportunities to better coordinate utility-specific IRP and state facility siting with regional transmission planning, including better regional market and transmission planning information for utility-specific plans; and improve the understanding of the influence of competition on utility-specific IRP in terms of planning objectives, planning process, plan implementation and plan output, and identify potential changes to utility-specific IRP to allow IRP to meet planning objectives in a competitive environment.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

Description: Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A unique distribution system loss minimization scheme via reconfiguration with line capability limits

Description: This paper describes an integrated scheme for distribution system loss minimization with consideration of line capability limits via reconfiguration. Line capability limits are incorporated into the single loop optimization process as constraints. The integrated scheme is tested by 38-bus distribution system for different initial configurations, system losses are reduced significantly without any overload occurrence on feeder transformer network.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Momoh, J.A.; Wang, Y. & Rizy, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of the transmission grid on market power

Description: If competition could extend without hindrance through the entire extent of an electrically connected power grid, the US would have just two electricity markets, each with a uniform price. These markets would be competitive indeed. Unfortunately, losses and congestion present barriers to competition and thereby provide the likelihood of significantly increased market power. This paper begins the analysis of congestion as it affects the physical extent of markets and thereby affects the degree of market power. This is new territory; very little has previously been written in this area. Although the theoretical developments reported here rely on complex economic analysis, and although the market behaviors described are extremely subtle, several broad generalizations relevant to policy analysis can be made. From these generalizations one major policy conclusion can be drawn: In an unregulated market it will be socially beneficial to build a grid that is more robust than what is optimal in a regulated environment. Unused capacity may be needed. For a line to support full competition it may need to have a capacity that is much greater than the flow that will take place on it under full competition. Markets do not have sharp boundaries. Even with only one line the two busses may be in different regions, the same region, or partially in each other`s region. Increasing capacity is more effective on a small line. If connecting two busses with a very strong line will reduce market power, then the first MW of connecting capacity will have the most impact and each additional MW will have less. A congested line will cut a market into two non-competing regions. In each region the generators will markup according to the elasticity of the demand in only their region. A generator may reduce output in order to congest a line and increase ...
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Stoft, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of superconducting transmission cable. CRADA final report

Description: The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwire Company is to develop the technology necessary to proceed to commercialization of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. Power transmission cables are a promising near-term electric utility application for high-temperature superconductivity. Present HTS wires match the needs for a three-phase transmission cable: (1) the wires must conduct high currents in self-field, (2) there are no high forces developed, and (3) the cables may operate at relatively low current density. The commercially-available HTS wires, in 100-m lengths, make construction of a full three-phase, alternating current (ac) transmission cable possible. If completed through the pre-commercialization phase, this project will result in a new capability for electric power companies. The superconducting cable will enable delivery with greater efficiency, higher power density, and lower costs than many alternatives now on the market. Job creation in the US is expected as US manufacturers supply transmission cables to the expanding markets in Asia and to the densely populated European cities where pipe-type cable is prevalent. Finally, superconducting cables may enable delivery of the new, diverse and distributed sources of electricity that will constitute the majority of new installed electrical generation in the world during the coming decades.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Hawsey, R.; Stovall, J.P.; Hughey, R.L. & Sinha, U.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

Description: The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or “ tunnels”, to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may ...
Date: January 31, 2012
Creator: Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett & Teumim, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

Description: Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack & Hadley, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

Description: 1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. ...
Date: March 31, 2013
Creator: Banerjee, Sanjoy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

Description: The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.
Date: October 31, 2013
Creator: Hunter, S. R. & Daniel, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

Description: Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).
Date: June 16, 1999
Creator: United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Transmission: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses electric power transmission and related policy issues. Transmission is a prominent federal issue because of a perceived need to improve reliability and reduce costs, transmission's role in meeting national energy goals (such as increased use of renewable electricity), and the potential efficiency advantages of "smart grid" modernization.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Kaplan, Stan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

Description: The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Elcock, D. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department