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Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

Description: Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Walker, Kimberly A; Weigand, Gilbert G & Fernandez, Steven J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value of Wind Power Forecasting

Description: This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G. & Piwko, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization Strategies for the Vulnerability Analysis of the Electric Power Grid

Description: Identifying small groups of lines, whose removal would cause a severe blackout, is critical for the secure operation of the electric power grid. We show how power grid vulnerability analysis can be studied as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Our analysis reveals a special structure in the formulation that can be exploited to avoid nonlinearity and approximate the original problem as a pure combinatorial problem. The key new observation behind our analysis is the correspondence between the Jacobian matrix (a representation of the feasibility boundary of the equations that describe the flow of power in the network) and the Laplacian matrix in spectral graph theory (a representation of the graph of the power grid). The reduced combinatorial problem is known as the network inhibition problem, for which we present a mixed integer linear programming formulation. Our experiments on benchmark power grids show that the reduced combinatorial model provides an accurate approximation, to enable vulnerability analyses of real-sized problems with more than 10,000 power lines.
Date: November 13, 2007
Creator: Pinar, A.; Meza, J.; Donde, V. & Lesieutre, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of Severe Multiple Contingencies in Electric PowerSystems

Description: In this work, we propose a computationally feasible approachtodetect severe multiple contingencies. We pose a contingency analysisproblem using a nonlinear optimization framework, which enables ustodetect the fewest possible transmission line outages resulting ina systemfailure of specified severity, and the most severe system failure causedby removing a specified number of transmission lines from service.Illustrations using a three bus system and the IEEE ~;30 bus system aimto exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Donde, Vaibhav; Lopez, Vanessa; Lesieutre, Bernard; Pinar, Ali; Yang, Chao & Meza, Juan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

Description: Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad literature review, we advocate a new perspective on SA in terms of sensemaking, also called situated or ecological decision making, where the focus of the ...
Date: August 8, 2007
Creator: Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L. & Paget, Mia L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

Description: This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G. & Podmore, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resilience of Microgrid during Catastrophic Events

Description: Today, there is a growing number of buildings in a neighborhood and business parks that are utilizing renewable energy generation, to reduce their electric bill and carbon footprint. The most current way of implementing a renewable energy generation is to use solar panels or a windmill to generate power; then use a charge controller connected to a battery bank to store power. Once stored, the user can then access a clean source of power from these batteries instead of the main power grid. This type of power structure is utilizing a single module system in respect of one building. As the industry of renewable power generation continues to increase, we start to see a new way of implementing the infrastructure of the power system. Instead of having just individual buildings generating power, storing power, using power, and selling power there is a fifth step that can be added, sharing power. The idea of multiple buildings connected to each other to share power has been named a microgrid by the power community. With this ability to share power in a microgrid system, a catastrophic event which cause shutdowns of power production can be better managed. This paper then discusses the data from simulations and a built physical model of a resilient microgrid utilizing these principles.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Black, Travis Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

Description: The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin & Dalton, Angela C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed generation

Description: Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.
Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Ness, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power

Description: It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial electrification. For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program that involves hybrid systems, to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy technologies.1 The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. Hybrid systems are multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application programs composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel generator, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. Thirteen countries are actively engaged in hybrid systems for rural and remote applications and another dozen countries have requested assistance in exploring wind/PV hybrid systems within their territories. At present rural/remote site application of renewable technologies is the fastest growing aspect of renewable energy worldwide.
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: Touryan, J. O. V. & Touryan, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OUT Success Stories: Solar Roofing Shingles

Description: Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells are now doubling as rooftop shingles. PV shingles offer many advantages. The energy generated from a building's PV rooftop shingles can provide power both to the building and the utility's power grid.
Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Johnson, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department