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Main Injector power distribution system

Description: The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.
Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: Wolff, Cezary Jach and Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2008 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

Description: This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades. It includes time-zero monitoring results for planting activities conducted in January 2008, annual survival monitoring for all planting years (2007 and 2008), and recommendations for the successful completion of DOE habitat mitigation commitments for this project.
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Durham, Robin E. & Sackschewsky, Michael R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

Description: The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Hauer, John F. & DeSteese, John G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System

Description: Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System: Three Federal Action Plans for Near- and Long-term Success is a short document written for the incoming U.S. Federal Administration's Transistion Team. The document represents what we believe to be foundational elements of a broad campaign to make rapid progress towards these goals for the longterm transformation necessary to meet our national economic, security, and environmental goals. The three immediate action plans include: * Creating Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure * Decarbonizing the Energy Economy *Enabling Science-Based Policy
Date: December 29, 2008
Creator: Davis, Jon M.; Virden, Jud W.; Walton, Terry L.; Brog, Terrence K.; Stiles, Dennis L.; Alderson, Karis P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement

Description: Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Dagle, J. E.; Winiarski, D. W. & Donnelly, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proton driver power supply system

Description: This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.
Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: Wolff, C. Jach and D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer-aided coordination and overcurrent protection for distribution systems

Description: Overcurrent protection and coordination studies for electrical distribution systems have become much easier to perform with the emergence of several commercially available software programs that run on a personal computer. These programs have built-in libraries of protective device time-current curves, damage curves for cable and transformers, and motor starting curves, thereby facilitating the design of a selectively coordinated protection system which is also well-protected. Additionally, design time when utilizing computers is far less than the previous method of tracing manufacturers` curves on transparent paper. Basic protection and coordination principles are presented in this paper along with several helpful suggestions for designing electrical protection systems. A step-by-step methodology is presented to illustrate the design concepts when using software for selecting and coordinating the protective devices in distribution systems.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Tolbert, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical substation service-area estimation using Cellular Automata: An initial report

Description: The service areas for electric power substations can be estimated using a Cellular Automata (CA) model. The CA model is a discrete, iterative process whereby substations acquire service area by claiming neighboring cells. The service area expands from a substation until a neighboring substation service area is met or the substation`s total capacity or other constraints are reached. The CA-model output is dependent on the rule set that defines cell interactions. The rule set is based on a hierarchy of quantitative metrics that represent real-world factors such as land use and population density. Together, the metrics determine the rate of cell acquisition and the upper bound for service area size. Assessing the CA-model accuracy requires comparisons to actual service areas. These actual service areas can be extracted from distribution maps. Quantitative assessment of the CA-model accuracy can be accomplished by a number of methods. Some are as simple as finding the percentage of cells predicted correctly, while others assess a penalty based on the distance from an incorrectly predicted cell to its correct service area. This is an initial report of a work in progress.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Fenwick, J.W. & Dowell, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project W-320 acceptance test report for AY-farm electrical distribution

Description: This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the AY-Farm Electrical Distribution System functions as required by the design criteria. This test is divided into three parts to support the planned construction schedule; Section 8 tests Mini-Power Pane AY102-PPI and the EES; Section 9 tests the SSS support systems; Section 10 tests the SSS and the Multi-Pak Group Control Panel. This test does not include the operation of end-use components (loads) supplied from the distribution system. Tests of the end-use components (loads) will be performed by other W-320 ATPs.
Date: April 2, 1998
Creator: Bevins, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of harmonics measurements in electrical distribution systems

Description: An assessment of the harmonics found in the electrical distribution system of several buildings in the three Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge plants in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful in the design of electrical distribution systems. A preliminary survey to determine where significant amounts of harmonic currents of voltages existed in the distribution system was performed at several buildings by comparing readings taken with true root-mean-square (RMS) multimeters and averaging multimeters (non-true RMS meters). From these measurements and subsequent calculations, facilities that appeared to have significant levels of harmonics present were analyzed with a power analyzer that could record waveforms and give the spectrum and magnitude of harmonics. Among the non-linear loads for which sample waveforms are illustrated are fluorescent lighting (both magnetic and electronic ballasts), variable frequency drives, switch mode power supplies, and uninterruptible power supplies. A discussion as to how various harmonic waveforms come about as a result of these nonlinear loads is also outlined in this paper.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Tolbert, L.M.; Hollis, H.D. & Hale, P.S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis and simulation of complex power systems

Description: The design and optimization of complex power systems is complicated by the numerous possible interactions between the system`s components and the difficulty of determining the optimal set of system parameters to satisfy design requirements. The problem is compounded for dynamic systems, whose interactions constantly change with time. Argonne National Laboratory is analyzing and simulating complex power systems to facilitate the design process.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Ewing, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A unique distribution system loss minimization scheme via reconfiguration with line capability limits

Description: This paper describes an integrated scheme for distribution system loss minimization with consideration of line capability limits via reconfiguration. Line capability limits are incorporated into the single loop optimization process as constraints. The integrated scheme is tested by 38-bus distribution system for different initial configurations, system losses are reduced significantly without any overload occurrence on feeder transformer network.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Momoh, J.A.; Wang, Y. & Rizy, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANN - based distribution system reconfiguration

Description: This paper describes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) - based distribution system reconfiguration scheme to reduce system loss. The ANN is trained for different load levels and different network topologies. The proposed scheme has been tested using a 38 - bus distribution system. The results are very promising.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Momoh, J.A.; Wang, Yanchun & Rizy, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THROUGH-THE EARTH (TTE) SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) SYSTEM

Description: Work has progressed on both subsystems: the through-the-earth (TTE) system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) system. After the Lab prototype of the IMPL system was perfected to function satisfactorily, the thrust of the work focused on building a first production prototype that can be installed and tested inside a mine. To obtain multi-channel voice communication through the TTE system, effort has proceeded to compress voice messages and make the format compatible with the power-line interface protocol.
Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: Meiksin, Zvi H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid reliability management tools

Description: To summarize, Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) is engaged in a multi-year program of public interest R&D to develop and prototype software tools that will enhance system reliability during the transition to competitive markets. The core philosophy embedded in the design of these tools is the recognition that in the future reliability will be provided through market operations, not the decisions of central planners. Embracing this philosophy calls for tools that: (1) Recognize that the game has moved from modeling machine and engineering analysis to simulating markets to understand the impacts on reliability (and vice versa); (2) Provide real-time data and support information transparency toward enhancing the ability of operators and market participants to quickly grasp, analyze, and act effectively on information; (3) Allow operators, in particular, to measure, monitor, assess, and predict both system performance as well as the performance of market participants; and (4) Allow rapid incorporation of the latest sensing, data communication, computing, visualization, and algorithmic techniques and technologies.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Eto, J.; Martinez, C.; Dyer, J. & Budhraja, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active power components of instantaneous phasors

Description: The instantaneous phasor method originated by the author to solve power quality and efficiency of three-phase systems with unbalanced and distorted voltages and currents has a unique symmetrical property. The phasors of one phase can be used to represent three phases. The power quality of a three-phase system can be indicated by the roundness of the trajectories of the voltage and current phasors. The fundamental-frequency, positive-sequence components of the immediate past cycle can be obtained to guide the compensation of the present values. This approach for power quality improvement is different from the recent development of the instantaneous reactive power. The active power components of instantaneous phasors are studied in this paper.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Hsu, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Sandia National Laboratories grid-tied inverter testing

Description: This paper proposes a definition for a Non-Islanding Inverter. This paper also presents methods that can be used to implement such an inverter, along with references to prior work on the subject. Justification for the definition is provided on both a theoretical basis and results from tests conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and Ascension Technology, Inc.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Kern, G.A.; Bonn, R.H.; Ginn, J. & Gonzalez, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An arc fault detection system

Description: An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Jha, Kamal N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement to the ``determination analysis`` (ORNL-6847) and analysis of the NEMA efficiency standard for distribution transformers

Description: This report contains additional information for use by the US Department of Energy in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. An earlier determination study by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory determined that cost-effective, technically feasible energy savings could be achieved by distribution transformer standards and that these savings are significant relative to other product conservation standards. This study was documented in a final report, ``Determination Analysis of Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers`` (ORNL-6847, July 1996). The energy conservation options analyzed in this study were estimated to save 5.2 to 13.7 quads from 2000--2030. The energy savings for the determination study cases have been revised downward for a number of reasons. The transformer market, both present and future, was overestimated in the previous study, particularly for dry-type transformers, which have the greatest energy-saving potential. Moreover, a revision downwards of the effective annual loads for utility owned transformers also results in lower energy savings. The present study assesses four of the five conservation cases from the earlier determination study as well as the National Electrical Manufacturers Association energy efficiency standard NEMA TP 1-1996 using the updated data and a more accurate disaggregated analysis model. According to these new estimates, the savings ranged from 2.5 to 10.7 quads of primary energy for the 30-year period 2004 to 2034. For the TP-1 case, data were available to calculate the payback period required to recover the extra cost from the value of the energy saved. The average payback period based on the average national cost of electricity is 2.76 years. 15 figs., 23 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Barnes, P.R.; Das, S.; McConnell, B.W. & Van Dyke, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refurbish power supply/distribution system, Phase 2, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge. Progress status report number 51

Description: This is a report on the phase 2 of refurbishing power supply/distribution system at Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The report topics include accomplishments by work breakdown structure (WBS) identifier, identification of items issued and items received, past due items, items requested, a milestone schedule by WBS and including a drawing list showing percent complete, and conference summaries.
Date: November 30, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department