248 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy: appendix a

Description: Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory jointly sponsored by the DOE-Division of Materials Science, The Materials Research Institute at LLNL and the University of California Presidents Office. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques will play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. There were general discussions lead by review talks on positron analysis techniques, and their applications to problems in semiconductors, polymers and composites, metals and engineering materials, surface analysis and advanced techniques. These were followed by focus sessions on positron analysis opportunities in these same areas. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of science based stockpile stewardship. There was a detailed discussion of the LLNL capabilities and a tour of the facilities. The Livermore facilities now include the worlds highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. This document is a supplement to the written summary report. It contains a complete schedule, list of attendees and the vuegraphs for the presentations in the review and focus sessions.
Date: November 5, 1997
Creator: Howell, R. H., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bulk defect analysis with a high-energy positron beam

Description: A program using a positron beam to probe defects in bulk materials has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides non-destructive analysis of average defect size and concentration. A 3 MeV positron beam is supplied by Sodium-22 at the terminal of a Pelletron accelerator. The high-energy beam allows large (greater than or equal to 1 cm<sup>2</sup>) engineering samples to be measured in air or even sealed in an independent environment. A description of the beam-PALS system will be presented along with a summary of recent measuremen
Date: September 23, 1998
Creator: Hartley, J. H.; Howell, R. H. & Sterne, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy

Description: Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center, the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques would play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of stockpile stewardship. The Livermore facilities now include the world`s highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. It was concluded that the positron microprobe under development at LLNL and other new instruments that would be relocated at LLNL at the high current keV source are an exciting step forward in providing results for the positron technique. These new data will impact a wide variety of applications.
Date: March 18, 1998
Creator: Howell, R., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials analysis using positron beam lifetime spectroscopy

Description: We are using a defect analysis capabilities based on two positron beam lifetime spectrometers: the first is based on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator and the second on our high current linac beam. The high energy beam lifetime spectrometer is routinely used to perform positron lifetime analysis with a 3 MeV positron beam on thick sample specimens. It is being used for bulk sample analysis and analysis of samples encapsulated in controlled environments for in situ measurements. A second, low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopy is under development at the LLNL high current positron source. This beam will enable defect-specific, 3-dimensional maps of defect concentration with sub-micron location resolution. When coupled with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes it will enable new levels of defect concentration mapping and defect identification.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Hartley, J.; Howell, R. H., Asoka-Kumar, P.; Sterne, P. & Stoeffl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam Comissioning of the PEP-II High Energy Ring

Description: The PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER), a 9 GeV electron storage ring, has been in commissioning since spring 1997. Initial beam commissioning activities focused on systems checkout and commissioning and on determining the behavior of the machine systems at high beam currents. This phase culminated with the accumulation of 0.75 A of stored beam-sufficient to achieve design luminosity--in January 1998 after 3.5 months of beam time. Collisions with the 3 GeV positron beam of the Low Energy Ring (LER) were achieved in Summer of 1998. At high beam currents, collective instabilities have been seen. Since then, commissioning activities for the HER have shifted in focus towards characterization of the machine and a rigorous program to understand the machine and the beam dynamics is presently underway.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Wienands, U.; Anderson, S.; Assmann, R.; Bharadwaj, V.; Cai, Y.; Clendenin, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of Instrumental Drifts in the PEP II LER BPM System

Description: During the last PEP-II run a major goal was to bring the Low-Energy Ring optics as close as possible to the design. A large number of BPMs exhibited sudden artificial jumps that interfered with this effort. The source of the majority of these jumps had been traced to the filter-isolator boxes (FIBs) near the BPM buttons. A systematic approach to find and repair the failing units had been developed and implemented. Despite this effort, the instrumental orbit jumps never completely disappeared. To trace the source of this behavior a test setup, using a spare Bergoz MX-BPM processor (kindly provided by SPEAR III at SSRL), was connected in parallel to various PEP-II BPM processors. In the course of these measurements a slow instrumental orbit drift was found which was clearly not induced by a moving positron beam. Based on the size of the system and the limited time before PEP-II closes in Oct.2008, an accelerator improvement project was initiated to install BERGOZ BPM-MX processors close to all sextupoles.
Date: November 7, 2007
Creator: Wittmer, W.; Fisher, A.S.; Martin, D.J.; Sebek, J.J. & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positron beam lifetime spectroscopy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: Defect analysis is needed for samples ranging in thickness from thin films to large engineering parts. We are meeting that need with two positron beam lifetime spectrometers: on on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator and the second on our high current linac beam. The high energy beam spectrometer performs positron lifetime analysis on thick samples which can be encapsulated for containment or for in situ measurements in controlled environments. At our high current beam, we are developing a low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam to enable positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy for defect specific, 3-D maps with sub-micron location resolution. The data from these instruments with the aid of first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Howell, R.H.; Cowan, T.E.; Hartley, J.H. & Stern, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

Description: Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell`s equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported.
Date: October 22, 1992
Creator: Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L. & Bridges, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction, commissioning and operational experience of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

Description: The Advanced Photon Source linear accelerator system consists of a 200 MeV, 2856 MHz S-Band electron linac and a 2-radiation-thick tungsten target followed by a 450 MeV positron linac. The linac system has operated 24 hours per day for the past year to support accelerator commissioning and beam studies and to provide beam for the user experimental program. It achieves the design goal for positron current of 8 mA and produces electron energies up to 650 MeV without the target in place. The linac is described and its operation and performance are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: White, M.; Arnold, N. & Berg, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised lattice for the APS storage ring

Description: As a result of more detailed engineering studies of vacuum chamber components and related accelerator physics studies, the circumference of the APS storage ring is increased by 44 m to a value of 1104 m. The increase is 1.1 m for each of the 40 sectors. The insertion region straight section is lengthened by 0.52 m to 6.72 m. This allows full 20-cm vacuum chamber transition sections leading into and out of the 5.2-m insertion devices. Computer studies using TBCI and MAFIA-T3 have indicated that 20-cm-long transition regions reduce the transverse coupling impedance to an Acceptable low value. The results for 10-cm transition length were marginal.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Crosbie, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-resolved imaging of electron and positron beams at APS

Description: Characterizations of stored electron beams and more recently positron beams circulating in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring have been done using optical synchrotron radiation (SR) and x-ray synchrotron radiation (XSR) imaging techniques. Results include the measurement of the bunch length and horizontal beam size versus single-bunch current for both electron and positron beams, observations of multibunch bunch length effects near 100 mA stored beam current, and initial diagnostics of a coupled-bunch instability with 15-minute period. Both the Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera using OSR and a pinhole camera using XSR from a bending magnet source point were utilized. Proposed enhancements to the beamline will also be presented.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Lumpkin, A.H. & Yang, B.X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High current pulsed positron microprobe

Description: We are developing a low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopy to provide a new defect analysis capability at the 10{sup 10} e{sup +}s{sup -l} beam at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron linac. When completed, the pulsed positron microprobe will enable defect specific, 3-dimensional maps of defect concentrations with sub-micron resolution of defect location. By coupling these data with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes and positron implantation profiles we will both map the identity and concentration of defect distributions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.; Kumar, A.; Sterne, P.A.; Cowan, T.E. & Hartley, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TiN coating of the PEP-II low-energy ring aluminum arc vacuum chambers

Description: The PEP-II Low-Energy Ring will operate at a nominal energy of 3.1 GeV with a positron beam current of 2.1 A. Design parameters for vacuum components are 3.5 GeV at 3 A. The arc vacuum system is based on an aluminum antechamber concept. It consists of 192 pairs of 2 m long magnet chambers and 5.5 m long pumping chambers. Titanium nitride coating of the entire positron duct is needed in order to suppress beam instabilities caused by multipactoring and the {open_quotes}electron-cloud{close_quotes} effect. An extensive R&D program has been conducted to develop coating parameters that give proper stoichiometry and a suitable thickness of TiN. The total secondary emission yield of TiN-coated aluminum coupons has been measured after the samples were exposed to air and again after electron-beam bombardment. A coating facility has been built to cope with the large quantity of production chambers and the very tight schedule requirements.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Kennedy, K.; Harteneck, B. & Millos, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of vertical aperture on beam lifetime at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring

Description: When a positron`s energy deviation {delta}E/E exceeds the rf acceptance, or when it receives an angular kick for the betatron motion that exceeds some limiting admittance, the positron will be lost. The main contributions to the total beam lifetime come from single Coulomb and Touschek scattering. In this report we investigate the dependence of the residual gas pressure and the vertical aperture of the Advanced Photon Source storage ring on the total beam. lifetime. We present results of calculating the total beam lifetime as a function of vertical aperture for varying average ring pressure, beam current, and coupling coefficient.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Bizek, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terawatt Picosecond CO(sub 2) Laser Technology for High Energy Physics Applications

Description: Demonstration of ultra-high acceleration gradients in the SM LWFA experiments put a next objective for the laser accelerator development to achieve a low-emittance monochromatic acceleration over extended interaction distances. The emerging picosecond terawatt (ps-TW) CO{sub 2} laser technology helps to meet this strategic goal. Among the considered examples are: the staged electron laser accelerator (STELLA) experiment, which is being conducted at the Brookhaven ATF, and the plasma-channeled LWFA. The long-wavelength and high average power capabilities of CO{sub 2} lasers maybe utilized also for generation of intense x-ray and gamma radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser beams off relativistic electrons. We discuss applications of ps-TW CO{sub 2} lasers for a tentative {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) collider and generation of polarized positron beams.
Date: July 5, 1998
Creator: Pogorelsky, I. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

Description: The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120{degrees} conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180{degrees} apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter`s thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Fathizadeh, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and multipactoring)

Description: The paper is organized in the following way. First, Ohmi effect induced by direct flow of primary photoelectrons is studied for the PEP-II parameters. The production rate and kinematics take into account the antechamber of the LER. We discuss the effect of the secondary emission of electrons in the AL chamber, where the yield is larger than one. Resonance multipactoring is considered, and then the average density of the secondary electrons is estimated taking into account the space-charge effect and the interaction with the beam. We show that in the extreme case there is a self-consistent regime similar to the regime of the space-charge dominated cathode. Finally, the rate of ion production by accumulated electrons and the possibility of the ion induced pressure instability is discussed.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Heifets, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RF cavities for the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

Description: The cavities for the dual frequency system of the APS PAR are described. The system uses two frequencies: a 9.78MHz fundamental system for the particle accumulation and a 117.3MHz twelfth harmonic system for the bunch compression. The cavities have been built, installed, tested, and used for storing the beam in the PAR for about a year. The fundamental cavity is a reentrant coaxial type with a capacitive loading plunger and has 1.6m length. The harmonic cavity is a symmetrical reentrant coaxial type and is 0.8m long. Ferrite tuners are used for frequency tuning. During the accumulation period, the ferrite tuner of the harmonic cavity works as a damper to disable the cavity. During an injection cycle the 9.78MHz system accumulates 24 positron bunches in a bucket and the 117.3MHz system compresses the bunch into a shorter bunch. Measurements were made on the rf properties of the cavities.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Kang, Y.W.; Nassiri, A.; Bridges, J.F.; Smith, T.L. & Song, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimates of Hadronic Backgrounds in a 5 TeV e+e- Linear Collider

Description: We have estimated hadronic backgrounds by {gamma}{gamma} collisions in an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider at a center-of-mass energy of 5 TeV. We introduce a simple ansatz, that is, a total {gamma}{gamma} cross section of {sigma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}} = ({sigma}{gamma}{sub p}){sup 2}/{sigma}{sub pp} shall be saturated by minijet productions, whose rate is controlled by p{sub t,min}({radical}s). We present that the background yields are small and the energy deposits are tinier than the collision energy of the initial electron and positron beams by a simulation.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Murayama, H.; Ohgaki, Tomomi & Xie, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of electron cloud build-up and saturation in the APS.

Description: In studies with positron beams in the Advanced Photon Source, a dramatic amplification was observed in the electron cloud for certain bunch current and bunch spacings. In modeling presented previously, we found qualitative agreement with the observed beam-induced multipacting condition, provided reasonable values were chosen for the secondary electron yield parameters, including the energy distribution. In this paper, we model and discuss the build-up and saturation process observed over long bunch trains at the resonance condition. Understanding this saturation mechanism in more detail may have implications for predicting electron cloud amplification, multipacting, and instabilities in future rings.
Date: June 13, 2002
Creator: Harkay, K.; Rosenberg, R.; Furman, M. & Pivi, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Session III

Description: This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.
Date: June 19, 2002
Creator: Furman, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department