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Comments Concerning "Fluorescent Probe Studies on the Microstructure of Polystyrene-Poly (vinylpyridine) Diblock Copolymer Film"

Description: This article provides comments on "Fluorescent Probe Studies on the Microstructure of Polystyrene-Poly (vinylpyridine) Diblock Copolymer Film," published in 'Macromolecules,' 1992.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Acree, William E. (William Eugene); Tucker, Sheryl A. (Sheryl Ann) & Wilkins, Denise C.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Excitation Curves of C12(p,pn)C11 and B11(p,n)C11 up to 32 MeV.

Description: The reaction C{sup 12} (p,pn)C{sup 11} which has been studied by McMillan, Chubb and Miller for energies up to 100 Mev is an example of a reaction whose high energy behavior cannot be explained by a compound nucleus process. The purpose of the study was to investigate this reaction at the high resolution possible with the Berkeley linear accelerator near the excitation threshold. The excitation curve was obtained by stacking specially molded polystyrene (composition C{sub n}H{sub n}) foils of high uniformity and bombarding them in the proton beam. The resultant activity was then counted on a Geiger counter in standard geometry. The resultant curve is shown in Figure 1. An immediately evident feature is the sharp threshold of the reaction. The second derivative curve, illustrated in Figure 2, of the excitation shows an RMS width of 270 kV, the theoretical straggling width due to the foils of 170 kv, and the remaining width in accordance with the energy spread of approximately {+-} 100 kv half width of the linear accelerator. The data therefore are compatible with a sharp threshold for this reaction. This curve, incidentally, furnishes independent evidence as to the energy homogeneity of the linear accelerator beam.
Date: April 20, 1948
Creator: Phillips, Robert & Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Wet Etch Release Method for Silicon Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Using Polystyrene Microspheres for Improved Yield

Description: One of the final steps in fabricating microelectromechanical devices often involves a liquid etch release process. Capillary forces during the liquid evaporation stage after the wet etch process can pull two surfaces together resulting in adhesion of suspended microstructures to the supporting substrate. This release related adhesion can greatly reduce yields. In this report, a wet etch release method that uses polystyrene microspheres in the final rinse liquid is investigated. The polystyrene microspheres act as physical barriers between the substrate and suspended microstructures during the final liquid evaporation phase. A plasma ashing process is utilized to completely remove the polystyrene microspheres from the microstructure surfaces. Using this process, release yields > 90% were achieved. It is found that the surface roughness of gold surfaces increases while that of the silicon is reduced due to a thin oxide that grows on the silicon surface during the plasma process.
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Date: May 2004
Creator: Mantiziba, Fadziso
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fabrication and Metrology of Micro-Scale Sinusoidal Surfaces in Polymer Workpiece Materials

Description: This study investigates the fabrication of precision, micro-scale sinusoidal surfaces in polymer workpiece materials and discusses methods to quantitatively characterize these surfaces. These precision sinusoidal surfaces are an important feature in a mesoscale assembly that will be used as part of a physics experiment. The experiment will study the formation of Rayleigh Taylor instabilities and requires a sinusoidal surface with an amplitude of 2.5 {micro}m and a wavelength of 70.7 {micro}m in both the x- and y-directions. The sinusoids must have sub-{micro}m form accuracy with a surface finish on the order of 100 nm, and they must be produced in a workpiece consisting of adjacent pieces of polyimide and iodine-doped polystyrene, a portion of which is illustrated in Figure 1.
Date: August 2, 2004
Creator: Bono, M J & Hibbard, R L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized light propagation through tissue and tissue phantoms

Description: We show that standard tissue phantoms can be used to mimic the intensity and polarization properties of tissue. Polarized light propagation through biologic tissue is typically studied using tissue phantoms consisting of dilute aqueous suspensions of microspheres. The dilute phantoms can empirically match tissue polarization and intensity properties. One discrepancy between the dilute phantoms and tissue exist: common tissue phantoms, such as dilute Intralipid and dilute 1-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microsphere suspensions, depolarize linearly polarized light more quickly than circularly polarized light. In dense tissue, however, where scatterers are often located in close proximity to one another, circularly polarized light is depolarized similar to or more quickly than linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that polarized light propagates differently in dilute versus densely packed microsphere suspensions, which may account for the differences seen between polarized light propagation in common dilute tissue phantoms versus dense biologic tissue.
Date: February 8, 2000
Creator: Sankaran, V; Walsh, J T JR & Maitland, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Saturation and foaming of thermoplastic nanocomposites using supercritical CO2.

Description: Polystyrene (PS) nanocomposite foams were prepared using supercritical fluid (SCF) CO2 as a solvent and blowing agent. PS was first in-situ polymerized with a range of concentrations of montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS). The polymerized samples were then compression molded into 1 to 2mm thick laminates. The laminates were foamed in a batch supercritical CO2 process at various temperatures and pressures from 60°-85°C and 7.6-12MPa. The resulting foams were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to determine effect of MLS on cellular morphology. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the impact of nanocomposite microstructure on glass transition of the foamed polymer. X-ray diffraction spectra suggested that the PS/MLS composite had an intercalated structure at both the 1% and 3% mixtures, and that the intercalation may be enhanced by the foaming process.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Strauss, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

Description: The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Baker, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single Bump on a Shell Fabrication

Description: At this morning's fill-tube surrogate working group meeting we tentatively decided on a single bump on a shell for the single March shot. This memo shows the calculations needed as background to fabricate such a bump by depositing an appropriate sized drop of polystyrene solution (i.e. the glue) to a shell as discussed in this mornings meeting. While writing this I had another idea for fabricating a bump, which I quickly outlined at the end of this memo. I am distributing this calculation primarily so that group members can quickly check the calculations and ideas and if without error to provide a framework for initial fabrication efforts.
Date: February 17, 2004
Creator: Cook, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High pressure, quasi-isentropic compression experiments on the Omega laser

Description: The high energy density of pulsed lasers can be used to generate shockless loading in solids to high pressures and compressions but low temperatures. We have used the Omega laser to extend the capabilities of this technique to multi-Mbar pressures and compressions approaching a factor of 2 in aluminum foils. The energy from a 3.7 ns laser pulse is used to drive a strong shock through a 200 {micro}m polystyrene disc. The disc material unloads from a high-pressure state and expands across a 300 {micro}m vacuum gap where it stagnates against the sample to produce a smooth, monotonically increasing load with rise times from a few to {approx} 20 ns. Ramped compression reasing waves having peak pressures of 14-200 GPa (0.14-2.0 Mbar) and peak compressions {rho}/{rho}{sub 0} of 1.1-2.0 were generated in the aluminum samples using laser pulse energies of 400 J to 2 kJ. Wave profiles from a series of successively thicker targets loaded to 120 GPa show the evolution of the high-pressure compression wave within the sample. The initial loading in the sample is shockless, and develops into a shock at a depth of 20-25 {micro}m. We compare these wave profiles with hydrodynamic simulations from which we extract material temperatures and plastic strain rates behind the compression wave. Limitations and future prospects for this new shockless loading technique are discussed.
Date: May 26, 2006
Creator: Lorenz, K; Edwards, M; Jankowski, A; Pollaine, S; Smith, R & Remington, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Influence of Chain Length on the Interfacial Ordering of L-Lysine and L-Proline and Their Homopeptides at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interfaces Studied by Sum Frequency Generation and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Description: Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) are employed to study the interfacial structure and adsorbed amount of the amino acids l-lysine and l-proline and their corresponding homopeptides, poly-l-lysine and poly-l-proline, at two liquid-solid interfaces. SFG and QCM-D experiments of these molecules are carried out at the interface between phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 (PBS) and the hydrophobic deuterated polystyrene (d{sub 8}-PS) surface as well as the interface between PBS and hydrophilic fused silica (SiO{sub 2}). The SFG spectra of the amino acids studied here are qualitatively similar to their corresponding homopeptides; however, the SFG signal from amino acids at the solid/PBS interface is smaller in magnitude relative to their more massive homopeptides at the concentrations studied here. Substantial differences are observed in SFG spectra for each species between the hydrophobic d{sub 8}-PS and the hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} liquid-solid interfaces, suggesting surface-dependent interfacial ordering of the biomolecules. Over the range of concentrations used in this study, QCM-D measurements also indicate that on both surfaces poly-l-lysine adsorbs to a greater extent than its constituent amino acid l-lysine. The opposite trend is demonstrated by poly-l-proline which sticks to both surfaces less extensively than its corresponding amino acid, l-proline. Lastly, we find that the adsorption of the molecules studied here can have a strong influence on interfacial water structure as detected in the SFG spectra.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: York, R.L.; Holinga, G.J. & Somorjai, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and performance of nanoscale ultra-smooth programmed defects for EUV Lithography

Description: We have developed processes for producing ultra-smooth nanoscale programmed substrate defects that have applications in areas such as thin film growth, EUV lithography, and defect inspection. Particle, line, pit, and scratch defects on the substrates between 40 and 140 nm wide 50 to 90 nm high have been successfully produced using e-beam lithograpy and plasma etching in both Silicon and Hydrosilsequioxane films. These programmed defect substrates have several advantages over those produced previously using gold nanoparticles or polystyrene latex spheres--most notably, the ability to precisely locate features and produce recessed as well as bump type features in ultra-smooth films. These programmed defects were used to develop techniques for film defect mitigation and results are discussed.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Olynick, D. L.; Salmassi, F.; Liddle, J. A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Spiller, E.; Baker, S. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature-modulated calorimetry of the frequency dependence of the glass transition of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and ....

Description: Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, TMDSC, is new technique that permits to measure the apparent heat capacity vs modulation frequency. The method is briefly described and a quasi- isothermal measurement method is used to derive the kinetic parameters for PET and PS. A first-order kinetics expression was used to describe the approach to equilibrium and point out the limits caused by asymmetry and cooperativity of the kinetics. Use of a complex description of heat capacity and entropy is discussed. Activation energies vary from 75 to 350 kJ/mol, dependent on thermal pretreatment and the preexponential factor is correlated with the activation energy.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Wunderlich, B. & Okazaki, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project progress report

Description: Works of two variety have been fulfilled: first, research of polystyrene shells formation conditions in drop tower furnace and ballistic furnace; second, creation of computer codes for simulation of shells formation processes, including numerous nucleation. Besides that polystyrene shells with diameter up to 2 mm transmitted to LLNL in parcel.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Isakov, A. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microphase separation in a model graft copolymer

Description: We present a preliminary overview of our work on a series of graft copolymers having poly(ethyl acrylate) backbones with pendant chains of polystyrene (PS). The copolymer system appeared to be in the strong segregation limit and exhibited evidence of ordered structures. The morphology of these structures can apparently be very different from what would be expected. For instance, we observed a lamellar structure in a material containing 28 wt.% PS grafts. Samples under uniaxial strain showed either conventional (i.e., affine deformation) and anomalous ({open_quotes}butterfly{close_quotes} isointensity patterns) behavior in small-angle neutron scattering.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Dozier, W.D.; Thiyagarajan, P. & Peiffer, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hardness enhancement and crosslinking mechanisms in polystyrene irradiated with high energy ion-beams

Description: Surface hardness values several times larger than steel were produced using high energy ion beams at several hundred keV to MeV. High LET is important for crosslinking. Crosslinking is studied by analyzing hardness variations in response to irradiation parameter such as ion species, energy, and fluence. Effective crosslinking radii at hardness saturation are derived base on experimental data for 350 keV H{sup +} and 1 MeV Ar{sup +} irradiation of polystyrene. Saturation value for surface hardness is about 20 GPa.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R. & Mansur, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Kinetics of Supercritical Coal Liquefaction: Effect of Catalysts and Hydrogen-Donor Solvents.

Description: Most research on polymer degradation is for single polymers, even though the thermal decomposition of polymer mixtures is of interest both practically and theoretically. Polymer degradation rates depend on the mixture type, and adding a polymer can increase, decrease, or leave unchanged the degradation rate of the first polymer. We show how distribution-kinetics theory, based on molecular-weight distributions (MWDs), provides expressions for degradation rates of binary polymer mixtures. The approach accounts for initiation, termination, hydrogen abstraction, and radical chain scission in the governing equations for MWDS. Molecular-weight moments yield expressions for molar and mass concentrations and rate coefficients for combinations of random and chain-end scission. Experimental data show the concentration effect of poly((x-methyl styrene)) (PAMS) on the degradation of polystyrene dissolved in mineral oil at 275 {degrees}C in a batch reactor. Samples analyzed by gel permeation chromatography yielded the time evolution of the MD. The results indicated that, owing to the interaction of mixed radicals with polymer by hydrogen abstraction, polystyrene degradation rate decreases with increasing PAMS concentration.
Date: July 21, 1997
Creator: McCoy, B.J. & Smith, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal decomposition of polystyrene in the high temperature fabrication technology of hollow microspheres. Revision 1

Description: The degree and nature of polymer degradation that occurs in the high temperature microshell formation process developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute has been examined experimentally. We find that significant mass degradation occurs during the final stages of shell formation. This manifests itself both in terms of mass loss and molecular weight degradation as measured by gel permeation chromatography. This decrease in the molecular weight may be in part responsible for the relatively fragile nature of the shells produced by this high temperature process. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Dorogotovtsev, V.M.; Akunets, A.A.; Merkuliev, Y.A.; Turivnoy, A.P.; Reibold, R.; Fearon, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depth-independent hardness improvements in ion irradiated polystyrene

Description: Polystyrene (PS) was irradiated with 2 MeV He{sup +} ions to a fluence of 3.3 {times} 10{sup 9} ions/m{sup 2}. A cross-section of the irradiated layer was subjected to hardness measurements across the section using a nanoindentation technique. Results showed that hardness increased as a function of irradiation depth and showed a maximum value of 12 GPa at a depth of approximately 6.5 {mu}m, for a total ion penetration range of 9 {mu}m, as compared to a hardness of 0.45 GPa for unirradiated PS. The hardness variation with depth followed the trend for Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for ionization from the energetic ions to substrate atoms. This investigation showed for the first time how hardness varies as a function of depth for ion-irradiated polymers; this variation approximately follows the ionization LET profile, suggesting that cross-linking in the polymers could be proportional to ionization.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Rao, G.R.; Riester, L. & Lee, E.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factor analysis of GPC-FTIR data in PBX9501 binder degradation studies

Description: The GPC/FTIR data consist of sets of 120 FTIR spectra corresponding to 120 GPC fractions. The GPC fractions can be further categorized by their polystyrene equivalent molecular weight and retention time, The FTIR data to be compared is in three sets of 120 spectra corresponding to the control, thermally aged, and radiolytically aged binder material. Figure 1 shows the extracted spectra (or factors) and corresponding concentration profiles (or scores) for the control data set. The four extracted spectra correspond to spectra for the background/baseline, Estane, Irganox, and NP. The extracted spectra match the spectra of pure components with the exception of Irganox. The Irganox spectrum has some spectral features corresponding to Irganox, but others are due to the poor signal-to-noise in the spectra of these GPC fractions. The low concentration for Irganox results in a widely varying concentration profile and the poor extracted spectrum. The factors and scores for the thermally aged data set demonstrate the same components that are evident in the control data set. The concentration profile shows an asymmetric distribution for Estane with a tail on the low molecular weight side. Less NP is associated with Estane in this region compared to the control data. The major NP concentration is near fraction 80, but is considerably less in magnitude (relative to Estane) when compared to the control. For the radiolytically aged sample set a five-factor solution provides a better fit for the data. The primary difference is the presence of additional bands near 1050,1320, and 1560 cm{sup {minus}1} for factor 5. Factor 5 shows concentration primarily in the same region as Estane.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Schoonover, J. & Bridgewater, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department