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Determination of Dissolved Aluminum in Water Samples

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this report is to test the accuracy and precision of the MIBK extract technique and its suitability for A1 determination in rain, surface waters, ground waters, and effluents obtained from leaching various types of rocks with acidified water. The present study investigates the accuracy, precision, and detection limit of this technique and reports methods for improvement. The purpose of the report also is to test the effect of filtration of water samples and the storage of samples in conventional polythylene (CPE), linear polythylene (LPE), and polypropyene (PP) bottles on accuracy of A1 determination.
Date: 1983
Creator: Afifi, Afifa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mineral-filled polypropylene: Improvement of scratch resistance

Description: A potential alternative to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate+ABS (PC+ABS), pigmented mineral-filled polypropylene (PP) finds an opening in automotive interior components such as instrument panels, knee bolsters, consoles, etc. Because of the lack of surface aesthetics, pigmented mineral-filled PP is experiencing a limitation to its acceptance in many applications. This study focuses on exploring various mineral fillers and additives in polypropylene to provide a material with enhanced scratch resistance. Several physical properties including Rockwell and Shore D hardness are investigated, and it is determined that Filler W improves scratch resistance. It is also determined that Filler T-filled-PP has poor scratch resistance even with the addition of a lubricant.
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Khatib, Jamal F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mixing of Isotactic and Syndiotactic Polypropylenes in the Melt

Description: The miscibility of polypropylene (PP) melts in which the chains differ only in stereochemical composition has been investigated by two different procedures. One approach used detailed local information from a Monte Carlo simulation of a single chain, and the other approach takes this information from a rotational isomeric state model devised decades ago, for another purpose. The first approach uses PRISM theory to deduce the intermolecular packing in the polymer blend, while the second approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained representation of independent chains, expressed on a high-coordination lattice. Both approaches find a positive energy change upon mixing isotactic PP (iPP) and syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) chains in the melt. This conclusion is qualitatively consistent with observations published recently by Muelhaupt and coworkers. The size of the energy chain on mixing is smaller in the MC/PRISM approach than in the RIS/MC simulation, with the smaller energy change being in better agreement with the experiment. The RIS/MC simulation finds no demixing for iPP and atactic polypropylene (aPP) in the melt, consistent with several experimental observations in the literature. The demixing of the iPP/sPP blend may arise from attractive interactions in the sPP melt that are disrupted when the sPP chains are diluted with aPP or iPP chains.
Date: July 14, 2000
Creator: CLANCY,THOMAS C.; PUTZ,MATHIAS; WEINHOLD,JEFFREY D.; CURRO,JOHN G. & MATTICE,WAYNE L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What's up with duct tape

Description: Recent research suggests that almost any tape can be made to work for a core-to-collar joint when perfectly applied. Given all the better choices available and all the problems that can and do occur in the field, we would not recommend that cloth-backed (natural) rubber-adhesive tapes be used, unless they can pass a suitable E2343 test. If visual degradation is an important factor, Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) and cloth-backed tapes should be avoided. While tapes that fail usually show visual degradation, the converse is not always true. We speculate, however, that visually degraded tapes are more likely to be susceptible to damage from vibration and other mechanical stresses. Conventional nylon straps are quite prone to fail at higher temperatures, but no systematic studies have yet been done across product classes. UL has proposed a new standard for straps, but the protocol for the current UL test does not, however, suggest that it would be a good indicator of durability. Products meeting the new UL standard for straps should be independently tested for the failure modes observed in the field and laboratory to determine if that test is a reasonable indicator of durability. Until a suitable test for strap durability exists, they recommend that only high temperature nylon or metal straps be used--especially in cases where tapes may be sensitive to mechanical stresses.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Walker, Iain S. & Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-domain dynamic opto-rheology study of polymer films using step-scan FTIR time-resolved spectroscopy (S{sup 2}FTIR TRS)

Description: Step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with impulse stress on polymer films has been used to monitor dynamic rheological responses in real time. A novel piezo-electrically-driven polymer microrheometer was employed to apply repetitive impulses to the polymer sample while time-domain spectra were recorded. Recent results include the study of both semi-crystalline polymers such as isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and elastomers such as Estane polyester/polyurethane copolymer and Kraton tri-block copolymer. The spectral changes of iPP are consistent with frequency-domain results. For iPP at room temperature, large differences in the response times of different absorption bands are not seen. However, the orientation response of the CH{sub 3} rocking mode is slightly slower than the responses of the backbone modes. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first reported successful step-scan FTIR time-domain dynamic polymer opto-rheology experiment. The advantages of the time-domain experiment over the frequency-domain experiment are also discussed briefly. This technique appears to be applicable to a variety of polymer samples, and examples from additional results are illustrated.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, H.; Palmer, R.A.; Manning, C.J. & Schoonover, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene coatings on steel: Adhesion and wear.

Description: Polymeric coatings are being used in a growing number of applications, contributing to protection against weather conditions and localized corrosion, reducing the friction and erosion wear on the substrate. In this study, various polypropylene (PP) coatings were applied onto steel substrates by compression molding. Chemical modification of PP has been performed to increase its adhesion to metallic surfaces by grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto PP in the presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). Influence of different concentrations of MAH and DCP on the properties of resulting materials have been examined. The coated steel samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), shear adhesion testing, FTIR and tribometry. The coatings with 3 wt. % MAH have shown the maximum adhesion strength due to maximum amount of grafting. The wear rates increased with increasing the amount of MAH due to simultaneous increase in un-reacted MAH.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Mahendrakar, Sridhar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structure property and deformation analysis of polypropylene montmorillonite nanocomposites.

Description: Nanocomposites with expandable smectites such as montmorillonite layered silicates (MLS) in polymer matrices have attracted extensive application interest. Numerous MLS concentrations have been used with no particular justification. Here, we investigate the effects of MLS dispersion within the matrix and on mechanical performance. The latter is resolved through a three-prong investigation on rate dependent tensile results, time dependent creep results and the influence of a sharp notch in polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. A fixed concentration of maleated polypropylene (mPP) was utilized as a compatibilizer between the MLS and non-polar PP. Analysis of transmission electron micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns on the surface and below the surface of our samples revealed a unique skin-core effect induced by the presence of clay. Differential scanning calorimetric and polarized optical microscopic examination of spherulites sizes showed changes in nucleation and growth resulting from both the maleated PP compatibilizer and the MLS. These structural changes resulted in a tough nanocomposite, a concept not reported before in the PP literature. Nonlinear creep analysis of the materials showed two concentrations 3 and 5 % wt of PP, which reduced the compliance in the base PP. The use of thermal wave imaging allowed the identification of ductile failure among materials, but more important, aided the mapping of the elastic and plastic contributions. These are essential concepts in fracture analysis.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Hernandez-Luna, Alejandro
Partner: UNT Libraries

Polymer Liquid Crystal (PLC) and Polypropylene Interlayers in Polypropylene and Glass Fiber Composites: Mechanical Properties

Description: In recent developments of composite materials, scientists and engineers have come up with fibers as well as matrices for composites and techniques of blending high cost components with low cost materials. Thus, one creates cost effective composite materials that are as efficient as space age components. One of the major breakthroughs in this area is the innovation of molecular composites, specifically polymeric liquid crystals (PLCs). These materials have excellent mechanical properties such as tensile impact and bending strength. They have excellent chemical resistance, low thermal expansivity, and low flammability. Their low viscosity leads to good processability One major setback in using space age composite technology in commercial applications is the price. Due to the complexity of processing, the cost of space composite materials is skyrocketing. To take the same concept of space age composite materials to create a more economical substitute has become a serious concern among scientists and engineers around the world. The two issues that will be resolved in this thesis are: (1) the potential impact of using PLCs (molecular reinforcement) can have on macro reinforced (heterogeneous composite, HC) long fiber systems; and (2) how strategic placement of the reinforcing layers can affect the macromechanical properties of the laminates.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Maswood, Syed
Partner: UNT Libraries

Duct Tape Durability Testing

Description: Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections, a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that taped seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been testing sealant durability for several years using accelerated test methods and found that typical duct tape (i.e., cloth-backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) fails more rapidly than other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing over two years for four UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (two cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The tests involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars. Periodic air leakage tests and visual inspection were used to document changes in sealant performance. After two years of testing, the flex-to-collar connections showed little change in air leakage, but substantial visual degradation from some products. A surprising experimental result was failure of most of the clamps used to mechanically fasten the connections. This indicates that the durability of clamps also need to be addressed ensure longevity of the duct connection. An accelerated test method developed during this study has been used as the basis for an ASTM standard (E2342-03).
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Sherman, Max H. & Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma energy recycle and conversion of polymeric (MSW) waste. Final report

Description: Final report summarizing research project results of studies of the thermal plasma recycling of polymers, including polyethylene and polypropylene. High levels of recovery of monomers were obtained from the process developed under this study.
Date: December 5, 2000
Creator: Knight, Richard & Grossman, Elihu D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for the PolyHANAA

Description: The PolyHanaa is a 24 chamber thermal cycling instrument designed to perform rapid, real-time optical detection of biological agents using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) process with TaqMan{trademark} reagents. Liquid samples are pipetted into small, disposable polypropylene tubes that are then inserted into the chambers. The 24 duplex chambers are divided into 6 independent groups and run information is presented simultaneously, in real time, for all groups.
Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Richards, J. B.; Stratton, P. L.; Benett, W. J.; Koopman, R. P. & Milanovich, F. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanodroplet quantification: pushing the detection limits of micro x-ray fluorescence

Description: In this study, detection limits for a variety of elements were determined on an EDAX Eagle I1 MXRF system equipped with a polycapillary and a Rh X-ray source. Both mass, volume, and spot diameter detection limits were established using dried spot technology, where various volumes and/or masses of different elements were deposited on different substrates, dried, and quantitatively analyzed by MXRF. Preliminary results have shown that sub-nanogram levels of material can be detected in less than 200 pm diameter spot sizes deposited on thin polymer films. Specifically, detection limits were found for a given element as a function of mass deposited for a given spot volume, and volume deposited for a given mass. The effect of the presence of multiple elements in a droplet on the detection limit was also investigated. For example, the detection limit for copper was determined when it was deposited as a single Cu solution and in various multielement mixtures containing from 2 up to 10 different elements. To determine how the substrate affects the detection limit of different species, elemental dried spots were analyzed on different polymer films, including polypropylene and AP 1 . Comparisons were also made to elements deposited on different spherical, resin substrates such as polystyrene beads.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.) & Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lifetime Tests on a High Ohms/Square Metalized High Crystalline Polypropylene Film Capacitor with Application to a Marx Modulator

Description: This paper presents accelerated lifetime tests on a polypropylene film capacitor. Experimental parameters (20% droop, 5 Hz repetition rate) simulate anticipated operating conditions encountered in the SLAC P2 Marx. Elevated film electric field stress is utilized as the acceleration parameter. Results indicate that, for the particular film of interest, a film stress of {approx}290 V/{mu}m corresponds to a 10{sup 5} hour lifetime. In addition, the voltage scaling exponent for this film is 13.1.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Kemp, Mark A.; Burkhart, Craig; Tang, Tao; /SLAC & ,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Duct Sealing Testing

Description: Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have typically shown that these seals tend to fail over extended periods of time. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been testing sealant durability for several years. Typical duct tape (i.e. fabric backed tapes with natural rubber adhesives) was found to fail more rapidly than all other duct sealants. This report summarizes the results of duct sealant durability testing of five UL 181B-FX listed duct tapes (three cloth tapes, a foil tape and an Oriented Polypropylene (OPP) tape). One of the cloth tapes was specifically developed in collaboration with a tape manufacturer to perform better in our durability testing. The first test involved the aging of common ''core-to-collar joints'' of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet metal ''collar-to-plenum joints'' pressurized with 200 F (93 C) air. The second test consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212 F (100 C) oven following the UL 181B-FX ''Temperature Test'' requirements. Additional tests were also performed on only two tapes using sheet metal collar-to-plenum joints. Since an unsealed flexible duct joint can have a variable leakage depending on the positioning of the flexible duct core, the durability of the flexible duct joints could not be based on the 10% of unsealed leakage criteria. Nevertheless, the leakage of the sealed specimens prior to testing could be considered as a basis for a failure criteria. Visual inspection was also documented throughout the tests. The flexible duct core-to-collar ...
Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Sherman, Max H. & Walker, Iain S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{sup 17}O NMR investigations of oxidative degradation in polymers

Description: We have initiated studies using both solution and solid state magic angle spinning {sup 17}O NMR for a series of oxidatively aged polymers. This short note reports the solution {sup 17}O NMR for oxidatively degraded polypropylene, ethylene-propylene-diene, polyisoprene, and nitrile rubber. Enriched O{sub 2} is used during the accelerated aging. 3 figs, 7 refs.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Alam, T.M.; Celina, M.; Assink, R.A.; Gillen, K.T. & Clough, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends

Description: The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Curro, J.G. & Weinhold, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 3 - Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste. Semiannual report, November 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

Description: Over the last 50 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has produced a wide variety of radioactive wastes from activities associated with nuclear defense and nuclear power generation. These wastes include low-level radioactive solid wastes, mixed wastes, and transuranic (TRU) wastes. A portion of these wastes consists of high- organic-content materials, such as resins, plastics, and other polymers; synthetic and natural rubbers; cellulosic-based materials; and oils, organic solvents, and chlorinated organic solvents. Many of these wastes contain hazardous and/or pyrophoric materials in addition to radioactive species. Physical forms of the waste include ion-exchange resins used to remove radioactive elements from nuclear reactor cooling water, lab equipment and tools (e.g., measurement and containment vessels, hoses, wrappings, equipment coverings and components, and countertops), oil products (e.g., vacuum pump and lubrication oils), bags and other storage containers (for liquids, solids, and gases), solvents, gloves, lab coats and anti-contamination clothing, and other items. Major polymer and chemical groups found in high-organic-content radioactive wastes include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), Teflon(TM), polystyrene (PS), nylon, latex, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), vinyl, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polycarbonate, nitriles, Tygon(R), butyl, and Tyvec(R).
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Ness, Robert O. & Aulich, Ted R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Poykala, J. A., Jr.; Daniels, E. J. & Arman, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical cell for in-situ x-ray characterization

Description: An electrochemical cell suitable for in-situ XRD analysis is presented. Qualitative information such as phase formation and phase stability can be easily monitored using the in-situ cell design. Quantitative information such as lattice parameters and kinetic behavior is also straightforward. Analysis of the LiMn&sub2;O&sub4; spinel using this cell design shows that the lattice undergoes two major structural shrinkages at approx. 4.0 V and approx. 4.07 V during charging. These shrinkages correlate well with the two electrochemical waves observed and indicate the likelihood of two separate redox processes which charging and discharging.
Date: August 4, 1998
Creator: Doughty, D.H.; Ingersoll, D. & Rodriguez, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

Description: Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A. & Ho, Clifford Kuofei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

Description: The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. Filter media candidates were evaluated for dewatering the ultrafine ash (UFA) product. Media candidates were selected based on manufacturer recommendations and evaluated using standard batch filtration techniques. A final media was selected; 901F, a multifilament polypropylene. While this media would provide adequate solids capture and cake moisture, the use of flocculants would be necessary to enable adequate filter throughput. Several flocculant chemistries were also evaluated and it was determined that polyethylene oxide (PEO) at a dosage of 5 ppm (slurry basis) would be the most suitable in terms of both settling rate and clarity. PEO was evaluated on a continuous vacuum filter using 901F media. The optimum cycle time was found to be 1.25 minutes which provided a 305% moisture cake, 85% solids capture with a throughput of 115 lbs dry solids per hour and a dry cake rate of 25 lb/ft2/hr. Increasing cycle time not did not reduce cake moisture or increase throughput. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Groppo, John & Robl, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Statistics for Fun Dough Data Acquired at LLNL

Description: Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a Play Dough{trademark}-like product, Fun Dough{trademark}, designated as PD. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2100 LMHU{sub D} at 100kVp to a low of about 1100 LMHU{sub D} at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 1% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 3.9 to 4.6. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 8.5. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the Fun Dough{trademark} in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. Still, layers can plainly be seen in the reconstructed images, indicating that the bulk density of the material in the container is affected by voids and bubbles. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, ...
Date: March 11, 2010
Creator: Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Brown, W D; Smith, J A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, status and first operations of the spallation neutron source polyphase resonant converter modulator system

Description: The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 converter-modulator stations each providing between 9 and 11 MW pulses with up to a 1 .I MW average power. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant 20 kHz polyphase boost inverter. Each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard substation cast-core transformer. Each substation is followed by an SCR pre-regulator to accommodate voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. These capacitors do not fail short, but clear any internal anomaly. Three 'H-Bridge' IGBT transistor networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are time-gated to generate the desired klystron pulse width. Pulse width modulation of the individual 20 lcHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with DSP based adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes nanocrystalline alloy that provides low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Capacitors are used on the transformer secondary networks to resonate the leakage inductance. The transformers are wound for a specific leakage inductance, not turns ratio. This design technique generates multiple secondary volts per turn as compared to the primary. With the appropriate tuning conditions, switching losses are minimized. The resonant topology has the added benefit of being deQed in a klystron fault condition, with little energy deposited in the arc. This obviates the need of crowbars or other related networks. A review of these design parameters, operational performance, production status, and OWL installation and performance to date will be presented.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Reass, W. A. (William A.); Apgar, S. E. (Sean E.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Doss, James D.; Gonzales, J. (Jacqueline); Gribble, R. F. (Robert F.) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department