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Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

Description: This document provides guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste. Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The program documentation is intended to demonstrate generator compliance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements as well as state and Federal regulations.
Date: November 25, 1997
Creator: Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention/waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan - WBS 1.11.2.1

Description: Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy`s preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices.
Date: August 22, 1997
Creator: Howald, S. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Saugier, K. & Isaac, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Goal/Completion Abstract. The Wilbur Wright College Environmental Technician Training Program

Description: In September 1993 DOE through Argonne National Laboratory awarded Wilbur Wright College a grant to develop an Environmental Technician training program. The primary goals included developing a comprehensive curriculum for the best possible training of environmental technicians as well as the building of a state-of-the-art facility to serve these students. The specific goal of the creation of the Environmental Technology Department was to train participants in identifying, auditing, sampling, and managing hazardous substances, handling in routine use, as well as responding to chemical emergencies, and in minimizing the generation of hazardous waste through pollution prevention. The development of the facilities included a state-of-the-art classroom with projection equipment and satellite connection, a computer lab, and a fully equipped wet science laboratory. The program was intended to make available a range of education options for students. Because of the accomplishments of the Environmental Technology Department, it must be considered a success that continues after the completion of the grant.
Date: October 3, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention assessment for a metal parts coater

Description: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that applies corrosion resistant coatings to metal parts. Aluminum parts received from customers may be anodized or may receive a chromate conversion coating. Brass, copper, steel, and aluminum parts from customers are nickel plated--either by electrolytic or electroless plating. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that large quantities of wastewater and metal sludge are generated by the plant and that significant cost savings could be achieved through replacement of Freon used for degreasing. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Spika, T. & Looby, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solubilization of trace organics in block copolymer micelles for environmental separation using membrane extraction principles. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1995

Description: The solubilization of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in block copolymer micelles has been studied as a function of polymer composition, architecture, and temperature. Micelle formation is favored at high temperatures, leading to significant enhancements in solubilization capacity. At low temperatures, however, micelles do not form and the solubilization capacity of the block copolymer solution for the organics is low; this provides a convenient method for the regeneration of micellar solutions used as solvents in the treatment of contaminated feed streams using membrane extraction principles. Other experiments and analysis point to the effectiveness of block copolymer micellar solutions as water-based adsorbents for the removal of trace organics from air streams. Theoretical calculations of the structure of block copolymer micelles in the presence and absence of solutes using self-consistent mean-field lattice theories and lattice Monte Carlo methods have successfully captured the trends observed with changing polymer composition and architecture, often quantitatively. The temperature and composition dependence of the micellar properties were determined by allowing the individual polymer segments to assume both polar and non-polar conformations.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Hatton, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution prevention opportunity assessments at Hanford

Description: The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) is a pro- active way to look at a waste generating activity and identify opportunities to minimize wastes through a cost benefit analysis. Hanford`s PPOA process is based upon the graded approach developed by the Kansas City Plant. Hanford further streamlined the process while building in more flexibility for the individual users. One of the most challenging aspects for implementing the PPOA process at Hanford is one overall mission which is environmental restoration, Now that the facilities are no longer in production, each has a different non- routine activity making it difficult to quantify the inputs and outputs of the activity under consideration.
Date: June 26, 1996
Creator: Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

Description: Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.
Date: August 19, 1997
Creator: Del Mar, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rotary Burner Demonstration

Description: The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.
Date: April 30, 2003
Creator: Flanagan, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) pollution prevention program implementation plan

Description: This plan documents the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program. The subject implementation plan has been updated to reflect the Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 contract structure in which Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) is the management and integration contractor. The P2/WMin Program scope includes FDH as the principal PHMC contractor, and B&W Hanford Company (BWHC), Duke Engineering & Services Hanford, Inc. (DESH), Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, (LMHC), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), Rust Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (RFSH), and DynCorp Tri-Cities Services, Inc. (DYN) as PHMC contractors, as well as subcontracting enterprise companies, such as Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. (FDNW), Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI), and Rust Federal Services Northwest (RFS), which provide engineering, operation, construction, maintenance, and computer services for the Hanford Site. The P2/WMin Program scope also includes all other subcontractor-affiliated enterprise companies, such as B&W Protec, Inc. (BWP), DE&S Northwest, Inc. (DESNW), and SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (SESC).
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Place, B. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

Description: This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmentally conscious manufacturing & technology access project: Final technical progress report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1996

Description: This final report is being submitted in fulfillment of the management obligations associated with the TRP/DOE grant which funded the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing & Technology Access (ECM) Project. A {open_quotes}Federal Assistance Project Status Report{close_quotes} is also being submitted with this form. This report will elaborate on the successful completion of this project in achieving and in most cases exceeding its programmatic goals and fulfilling it statutory financial match obligation. A review of the Year 1 {open_quotes}Technical Progress Report{close_quotes} and the Quarterly Reports filed during the project period, clearly portray that, in all substantive areas, the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing & Technology Access Project (ECM Project) achieved or exceeded its goals. The success of the Project is largely due to the tremendous support provided by the Center for Technology Transfer (CTT) and the Maine Metal Products Association (MMPA). Both organizations provided extensive administrative and financial support and were instrumental in promoting the work of the project within the metals industry. The programmatic oversight provided by the industry Steering Committee and the broad partnership represented on the Board of Advisors were invaluable in developing, promoting and implementing the work of the ECM Project.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold end of the process by air-pollution control devices such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions at the hot end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and capture volatized metal vapors. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The following progress has been made during the performance period from Oct. 1, 1995 through Dec. 31, 1995: (1) Additional combustion experiments involving both coal and wood pellets were carried out in the constructed quartz fluidized bed combustor. (2) A new Buck Scientific Model 210VGP Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a continuous flow hydride generator especially for arsenic and selenium was installed for the project. (3) A paper, entitled ``Capture of Toxic Metals by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was presented at the 1995 AIChE Annual Meeting held in Miami, November 13--17, 1995. (4) A manuscript, entitled ``Trace Metal Capture by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was submitted to the 26th International Symposium on Combustion for presentation and for publication in the symposium proceedings. 1 ref., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Ho, Thomas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

Description: Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project`s total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments.
Date: August 15, 1997
Creator: Del Mar, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) Plan

Description: The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Brandt, C. C.; Christensen, S. W.; Cicerone, D. S.; Greeley, M. S., Jr.; Hill, W. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Description: This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. & Rosenfeld, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford site pollution prevention plan progress report, 1993

Description: This report tracks progress made during 1995 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307,`Plans,` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, `Waste Reduction,` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in- process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material.
Date: August 26, 1996
Creator: Kirkendall, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of risk prioritization and budget allocation methods for pollution prevention activities

Description: This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T. & Watz, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

Description: DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Phillips, N.M. & Raubfogel, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unit costs of waste management operations

Description: This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L. & Buehring, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the environmental and economic effects of widespread residential PV adoption using GIS and NEMS

Description: This paper describes a study of the national effects of widespread adoption of grid-connected residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. A Geographic Information System (GIS) model is used to estimate potential PV system adoption and PV electricity generation and the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used to estimate the national effects of PV electricity generation. Adoption is assumed to occur if levelized PV system cost is less than the local average retail electricity rate at the country level. An estimate of the current {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} scenario (defined by a 6.5% real interest rate, 30-year loan life, $6{sub 1994}/W system cost, and $4{sub 1994}/month voluntary premium) results in no adoption. Several scenarios designed to stimulate PV adoption are modeled. As an example, if PV system costs are instead assumed to be $3{sub 1994}/W, rooftop systems are found to be cost effective in 16% of detached single-family households in the U.S. by 2015 (assuming full adoption of 4-kW systems), this results in 82.1 TWh of annual PV electricity generation, 170 TWh of avoided electricity transmission, distribution, and generation losses, 6 Mt/a of avoided carbon emissions, 50 kt/a of avoided NOx emissions, and 27.3 GW of avoided electricity generating capacity in place.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C. & Mahler, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

Description: The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department