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Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

Description: The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Federspiel, Clifford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating large-scale fracture permeability of unsaturatedrockusing barometric pressure data

Description: We present a three-dimensional modeling study of gas flow inthe unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Our objective is toestimate large-scale fracture permeability, using the changes insubsurface pneumatic pressure in response to barometric pressure changesat the land surface. We incorporate the field-measured pneumatic datainto a multiphase flow model for describing the coupled processes ofliquid and gas flow under ambient geothermal conditions. Comparison offield-measured pneumatic data with model-predicted gas pressures is foundto be a powerful technique for estimating the fracture permeability ofthe unsaturated fractured rock, which is otherwise extremely difficult todetermine on the large scales of interest. In addition, this studydemonstrates that the multi-dimensional-flow effect on estimatedpermeability values is significant and should be included whendetermining fracture permeability in heterogeneous fracturedmedia.
Date: May 17, 2005
Creator: Wu, Yu-Shu; Zhang, Keni & Liu, Hui-Hai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRADA Final Report-Dual Manifold System for Arraying Biomolecules

Description: The objective of this CRADA is to establish a new approach to fluid transfer and array construction. This new approach will involve a high-speed, multiplexed fluid distribution valve and ink jet valves. It will enable the parallel handling of multiple reagents for a system that will have multiple applications in addition to the high-speed construction of microarrays. The primary tasks involve proof of principle experiments aimed at establishing key components of the technology and evaluating various optional configurations. The basic platform for evaluating the technology will be set-up by the Contractor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will employ custom valving prepared by Rheodyne. The test platform will consist of a motion controller, 3-axes of motion, software, and pneumatic control; and will be used to evaluate the hybrid valve.
Date: May 8, 2001
Creator: Doktycz, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated methodology for characterizing flow and transportprocesses in fractured rock

Description: To investigate the coupled processes involved in fluid andheat flow and chemical transport in the highly heterogeneous,unsaturated-zone (UZ) fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, we present anintegrated modeling methodology. This approach integrates a wide varietyof moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and geochemical isotopic field data intoa comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses.The results of field applications of the methodology show that moisturedata, such as water potential and liquid saturation, are not sufficientto determine in situ percolation flux, whereas temperature andgeochemical isotopic data provide better constraints to net infiltrationrates and flow patterns. In addition, pneumatic data are found to beextremely valuable in estimating large-scale fracture permeability. Theintegration of hydrologic, pneumatic, temperature, and geochemical datainto modeling analyses is thereby demonstrated to provide a practicalmodeling approachfor characterizing flow and transport processes incomplex fractured formations.
Date: August 31, 2007
Creator: Wu, Yu-Shu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

Description: Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.
Date: March 23, 2006
Creator: Martins, S & Gregory, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PNEUMATIC ATOMIZING NOZZLES IN FLUIDIZED BED CALCINING. I. CALIBRATION TESTS

Description: The results of test stand studies of a pneumatic atomizing nozzle to be used in the Demonstrational Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are presented. Atomization and performance characteristics are described. The liquid feed control system for the Demonstrational Waste Calciner is compared with results of bench scale tests, and recommendations are made for improving the system. (auth)
Date: May 12, 1961
Creator: Legler, B M & Stevens, J I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

Description: The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type-U fuel economy evaluations, as described in Ref. ...
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Englar, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

Description: We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D. & Tsang, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

Description: Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.
Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Englar, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A two-stage pneumatic repeating pellet injector for refueling magnetically confined plasmas in long-pulse fusion experiments

Description: An experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of a repetitive pneumatic pellet injector at 1 Hz in the velocity range of 2 to 3 knVs was carried out in a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ENEA Frascati, in the context of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and EURATOM-ENEA Association. The third round of this experiment was completed in May 1995. Both the operation and performance of the equipment were improved, and the original objectives of the collaboration have been met. The facility was also briefly operated with neon pellets to explore the potential for producing fast ``killer`` pellets for disruption amelioration applications. Speeds of 1.7 km/s were achieved using a piston mass of 43 g. Higher speeds should be achievable with a system specifically designed for neon or other higher Z gases. Finally, tests were performed with thin boron carbide coatings (2 {mu}m) on the Ergal pistons. The test results were encouraging because piston friction was reduced was the piston wear.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Capobianchi, M.; Domma, C.; Ronci, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual Manifold System for Arraying Biomolecules

Description: The objective of this CRADA is to establish a new approach to fluid transfer and array construction. This new approach will involve a high-speed, multiplexed fluid distribution valve and ink jet valves. It will enable the parallel handling of multiple reagents for a system that will have multiple applications in addition to the high-speed construction of microarrays. The primary tasks involve proof of principle experiments aimed at establishing key components of the technology and evaluating various optional configurations. The basic platform for evaluating the technology will be set-up by the Contractor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will employ custom valving prepared by Rheodyne. The test platform will consist of a motion controller, 3-axes of motion, software, and pneumatic control; and will be used to evaluate the hybrid valve.
Date: April 26, 2001
Creator: Doktycz, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wide-angle monochromatic x-ray beam shutter : a design study.

Description: A novel design of a wide-angle monochromatic x-ray beam shutter is discussed. The shutter is designed as a compact unit capable of providing users with the means of shutting off the beam in secondary beamlines that are at an angle to the primary beamline and to each other. The single-unit design used the fact that all the secondary beamlines will be closed at the same time. The main challenge was to fit the shutter in the limited space of the existing Advanced Photon Source IMMW-CAT hutch. Space limitations led to the change in position of the actuator subassembly as compared to the standard shutter design. Although the actuator subassembly is placed underneath the shutter, fail-safe shutting is achieved by placing tungsten blocks above the beam while the shutter is open and using gravity to close the shutter in case of pneumatic failure. Redundancy required by safety concerns was achieved by duplicating the tungsten block/actuator subunits. Tungsten blocks of uneven length were used to counteract the increase in the center-to-center distance among secondary beamlines due to their angular offset. A special support table was designed to facilitate assembly and adjustability of the shutter position in the available space. To provide a radiation-tight hutch, a non-standard guillotine system was designed. In this paper, the design, specifications and optical ray tracing of the shutter assembly are presented.
Date: July 9, 2002
Creator: Brajuskovic, B.; Chang, J.; Carrera, F.; Lourio, L.; Pelletier, J.F. & Shu, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analytical solution for transient gas flow in a multi-wellsystem

Description: Soil vapor extraction (SVE) combined with air injectionprovides an efficient way for the cleanup of vadose zone contaminated byvolatile organic chemicals (VOCs). A successful design of an SVE system,however, relies on a good knowledge of the induced gas flow field in thevadose zone. Analytical solutions are available to help understand thegas flow field at steady-state. However, most SVE systems must pass atransient period before reaching steady (or quasi-steady) state and thelength of the period should be system-specific. This paper presents ananalytical solution for transient gas flow in a vadose zone withextraction and injection wells. The transient solution approaches thesteady-state solution as time increases. Calculations have shown that fora shallow well (screened in a depth of less than 10 m) in a vadose zonewith an air permeability of 1 darcy (10-12 m2) or larger, the systemreaches steady-state in just several hours. Decreasing the airpermeability or increasing the screen depth increases the time to reachsteady-state. In practical applications the transient solution may berelatively insignificant in an SVE design. However, the solution can beimportant in site characterization through pneumatic tests. A procedureis provided for applying the dimensionless solution in estimating airpermeability and air-filled porosity. An example is also given to use thetransient solution for verifying numerical codes.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Shan, Chao
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JV Task 59-Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution

Description: The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, North Dakota. The remedial strategy was based on the application of two innovative concepts: (1) design and deployment of the mobile extraction, treatment, and injection units to overcome site limitations associated with urban settings in high-traffic areas and (2) vacuum-controlled nutrient injection within and on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Combined contaminant recovery since the beginning of the project in June 2003 totals over 13,600 lb ({approx}6,170 kg) of hydrocarbons, equivalent to 2176 gallons (8236 l) of product. In situ delivery of 1504 Ib (682 kg) of ionic nitrate and 540 Ib (245 kg) of dissolved oxygen translates into further reduction of about 489 Ib (222 kg) of benzene for the same period and provides for long-term stimulation of the natural attenuation process. In addition to contaminant recovered by extraction and reduced by in situ biodegradation, a total of 4136 Ib (1876 kg) of oxygen was delivered to the saturated zone, resulting in further in situ reduction of an estimated 1324 lb (600 kg) of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons. Based on the results of the EERC demonstration, the North Dakota Department of Health approved site abandonment and termination of the corrective action.
Date: March 15, 2007
Creator: Solc, Jaroslav
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

JV Task 104 - Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls

Description: The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, North Dakota. The primary technological synergies included (1) contaminant recovery using simultaneous operation of multiphase recovery and high-vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE) and (2) vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Final risk reduction steps included design and retrofit for the municipal well. The successful remediation effort resulted in the reduction of long-term health risks associated with rate-limited contaminant release within the capture zone for the municipal well and allowed for its reintegration into the water supply system. Contaminant recovery for the remediation period of September 2006 to June 2008 totaled over 12,653 lb (5,740 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent to 2022 gallons (7653 l) of product. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with multiphase extraction and SVE systems resulted in accelerated volatile organic contaminant transport from the saturated zone and increased contaminants of concern recovery. Delivery of over 7.7 million ft{sup 3} of oxygen (219.8 thousand m{sup 3}) into the contaminated aquifer would translate into in situ biodegradation of 2007 kg (4424 lb) of benzene and provide for long term stimulation of the natural attenuation process.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Solc, Jaroslav & Botnen, Barry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY STATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PIT DISASSEMBLY AND CONVERSION PROJECT

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed prototype equipment to demonstrate remote surveying of Inner and Outer DOE Standard 3013 containers for fixed and transferable contamination in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 and 10 CFR 835 Appendix B. When fully developed the equipment will be part of a larger suite of equipment used to package material in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 at the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Project slated for installation at the Savannah River Site. The prototype system consists of a small six-axis industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a force sensor, vacuum gripper and a three fingered pneumatic gripper. The work cell also contains two alpha survey instruments, swipes, swipe dispenser, and other ancillary equipment. An external controller interfaces with the robot controller, survey instruments and other ancillary equipment to control the overall process. SRNL is developing automated equipment for the Pit Disassembly and Conversion (PDC) Project that is slated for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment being developed is automated packaging equipment for packaging plutonium bearing materials in accordance with DOE-STD-3013-2004. The subject of this paper is the development of a prototype Radiological Survey Station (RSS). Other automated equipment being developed for the PDC includes the Bagless transfer System, Outer Can Welder, Gantry Robot System (GRS) and Leak Test Station. The purpose of the RSS is to perform a frisk and swipe of the DOE Standard 3013 Container (either inner can or outer can) to check for fixed and transferable contamination. This is required to verify that the contamination levels are within the limits specified in DOE-STD-3013-2004 and 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. The surface contamination limit for the 3013 Outer Can (OC) is 500 dpm/100 cm2 (total) and 20 dpm/100 cm2 (transferable). This paper will concentrate on the RSS developments for ...
Date: May 22, 2011
Creator: Dalmaso, M.; Gibbs, K. & Gregory, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

Description: A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved by pneumatic means and free the projectile.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J. & Asay, Blaine W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

Description: The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.
Date: December 18, 2000
Creator: HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S. & COSTELLO,J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department