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TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE

Description: OAK B202 TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE. Several tokamak experiments have reported the development of a central region with vanishing currents (the current hole). Straightforward application of results from the work of Greene, Johnson and Weimer [Phys. Fluids, 3, 67 (1971)] on tokamak equilibrium to these plasmas leads to apparent singularities in several physical quantities including the Shafranov shift and casts doubts on the existence of this type of equilibria. In this paper, the above quoted equilibrium theory is re-examined and extended to include equilibria with a current hole. It is shown that singularities can be circumvented and that equilibria with a central current hole do satisfy the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition with regular behavior for all the physical quantities and do not lead to infinitely large Shafranov shifts. Isolated equilibria with negative current in the central region could exist. But equilibria with negative currents in general do not have neighboring equilibria and thus cannot have experimental realization, i.e. no negative currents can be driven in the central region.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: CHU, M.S. & PARKS, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rayleigh-Taylor Mix experiment on Pegasus

Description: The Rayleigh-Taylor Mix project will attempt to diagnose and understand the growth of a mixing layer at the interface between an imploding metal liner and a polystyrene foam core in a series of pulsed power experiments on the Pegasus capacitor bank. Understanding the effects of material strength will be an important part of the study. During the initial phase of the implosion, the linear/foam interface is Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable; however, as the foam is compressed, it decelerates the liner, causing it to bound and to go RT unstable. This paper reports 1D and 2D MHD simulations of the first experiment in the series and preliminary results.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Sheppard, M.G.; Atchison, W.L. & Anderson, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the resistive wall mode in DIII-D

Description: Recent MHD calculations predict that, for a plasma with sufficient rotation, a resistive wall can provide stability up to the {beta}{sub N} limit predicted assuming the wall were ideal. In the region of {beta}{sub N} between the wall-at-infinity limit and the ideal-wall limit, an MHD instability branches into two modes: a plasma mode, that is nearly stationary with respect to the plasma at the resonant surface, and a resistive wall mode (RWM), that is nearly stationary with respect to the wall. Experiments conducted in the DIII-D, PBX-M and HBT-EP tokamaks have demonstrated that plasmas with a nearby conducting wall can remain stable above the beta limit predicted with wall-at-infinity, and have reported observations of instabilities with the characteristics of a resistive wall mode. In the experiments described in this paper, improved diagnostic measurements and plasma operational techniques, giving broader current density profiles and high toroidal rotation, have provided direct identification of the resistive wall mode. These experiments were designed to ease the requirements on total beta in favor of maximizing the wall stability enhancement factor, E{sub W}, increasing the duration of the wall-stabilized phase, and ensuring shot-to-shot reproducibility with the available heating power.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Garofalo, A. M.; Bialek, J. & Chu, M. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for Grant DE-FG03-99ER54551

Description: The approach to treating plasma transport based on the paradigm of self-organized criticality (SOC) is largely due to the success of this paradigm as an explanation for some of the discrepancies between theoretical predictions of turbulent transport and the experimental observations. Characteristics of SOC systems are that they maintain average profiles that are linearly stable and yet are able to sustain active transport dynamics (as often observed in experiment). The dominant transport scales in SOC systems are not the underlying local fluctuation scales but are the scales of the system (again as often observed). Finally, in the presence of sheared flow, the transport can exhibit a large reduction in system sized transport. This reduction is accompanied by an increase in fluctuation (bursty) events needed to maintain the constant flux, this too is something that has been observed.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Newman, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of radial electric field on Alfven-type instabilities

Description: The influence of the large scale radial electric field, E{sub r}{sup (0)} on the frequency of shear-Alfven-type instability is analyzed. A frozen-in-flux constraint and the moderate-{beta} ion gyrokinetic equation are used in the derivation. The analysis indicates that the frequency predicted by a theory with E{sub r}{sup (0)} effect should be Doppler-shifted by k {center_dot} V{sub E} for comparison to the experimentally observed frequency. A specific example of the practical relevance of the result is given regarding possible identification of the edge-localized-mode-associated magnetic activity recently observed in PBX-M tokamak experiment.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Hahm, T.S. & Tang, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation and control of resistive wall modes

Description: Two approaches to achieving long-time scale stabilization of the ideal kink mode with a real, finite conductivity wall are considered: plasma rotation and active feedback control, DIII-D experiments have demonstrated stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) by sustaining beta greater than the no-wall limit for up to 200 ms, much longer than the wall penetration time of a few ms. These plasmas are typically terminated by an m = 3, n = 1 mode as the plasma rotation slows below a few kHz. Recent temperature profile data shows an ideal MHD mode structure, as expected for the resistive wall mode at beta above the no-wall limit. The critical rotation rate for stabilization is in qualitative agreement with recent theories for dissipative stabilization in the absence of magnetic islands. However, drag by small-amplitude RWMs or damping of stable RWMs may contribute to an observed slowing of rotation at high beta, rendering rotational stabilization more difficult. An initial open-loop active control experiment, using non-axisymmetric external coils and a new array of saddle loop detectors, has yielded encouraging results, delaying the onset of the RWM.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Strait, E. J.; Garofalo, A. M. & Austin, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gyrokinetic Theory for Arbitrary Wavelength Electromagnetic Modes in Tokamaks

Description: A linear gyrokinetic system for arbitrary wavelength electromagnetic modes is developed. A wide range of modes in inhomogeneous plasmas, such as the internal kink modes, the toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) modes, and the drift modes, can be recovered from this system. The inclusion of most of the interesting physical factors into a single framework enables us to look at many familiar modes simultaneously and thus to study the modifications of and the interactions between them in a systematic way. Especially, we are able to investigate self-consistently the kinetic MHD phenomena entirely from the kinetic side. Phase space Lagrangian Lie perturbation methods and a newly developed computer algebra package for vector analysis in general coordinate system are utilized in the analytical derivation. In tokamak geometries, a 2D finite element code has been developed and tested. In this paper, we present the basic theoretical formalism and some of the preliminary results.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G. & Tang, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

Description: The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known {Delta}{prime} stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting {Delta}{prime} for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces.
Date: September 22, 1998
Creator: Waelbroeck, F.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A theory of the high-mode phenomenon for stellarators

Description: It is shown that besides the ion orbit loss mechanism, which occurs in a region a {minus} {var_epsilon}{sub t}{rho}{sub p} < r < a, the collisionless drift-orbit transport flux can also drive the poloidal {rvec E} {times} {rvec B} velocity in a region r < a {minus} {var_epsilon}{sub t}{rho}{sub p} in stellarators. Here, r is the minor radius, a is the plasma radius, {var_epsilon}{sub t} is the toroidal amplitude of the magnetic field spectrum, {rvec E} is the electric field, {rvec B} is the magnetic field, and {rho}{sub p} is the poloidal ion gyroradius. The transport-fluxdriven {rvec E} {times} {rvec B} velocity can be triggered most efficiently by an increase of the ion temperature gradient. The theory is applied to the high-mode (H-mode) phenomenon observed in stellarators.
Date: September 1995
Creator: Shaing, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of global MHD instabilities by toroidal plasma rotation

Description: Theoretical study and experimental observations suggest that rotation can play a crucial role in determining plasma stability. Since conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis ignores rotation, more advanced computational tools are being developed to confirm the theoretical understanding and to perform comparison between theory and experiment. In a previous work, the authors reported on the formulation and computation of MHD modes in plasmas with a small (subsonic) toroidal rotation. R.otation is found to have a substantial stabilizing effect under many circumstances. In this work, they extend the formulation in Ref. 4 to include an arbitrary (large) toroidal plasma rotation. It is the purpose of this work to examine the difference between these two formulations and report on results from computations using these formulations.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Luetjens, H.; DeRidder, G. & Sauter, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toroidal pinch experiments. Annual progress report, November 24, 1992--November 23, 1993

Description: The effect of boundary conditions on plasma confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) was studied. Early theoretical studies of the magnetohydrodynamic stability of the reversed field pinch had shown that the pinch was unstable unless it was surrounded by a conducting shell which prevented the penetration of the magnetic field during the lifetime of the pinch. The presence of the sheer, however, complicated construction and prevented control of the plasma equilibrium by feedback systems. This research project was undertaken to determine the effect on confinement of varying the magnetic penetration time of the shell. A reversed field pinch, the Reversatron, was constructed so that shells of varying thickness could be installed. Shells were made with magnetic penetration times both longer and shorter than the duration of the plasma discharge. These shells allowed the performance to be determined as a function of the magnetic penetration time of the shell. This research showed that a shell with a short penetration time degraded the discharges. Diagnostic measurements showed reductions in plasma current, discharge duration, and the Doppler temperature of impurity ions and showed increases in the plasma resistivity and loop voltage. The greater power input and lower temperature implied a reduced energy confinement time. Magnetic diagnostics showed that two classes of MHD instabilities with poloidal mode number m = 1 were responsible for the degraded confinement. These were the dynamo modes resonant on the magentic axis (with toroidal mode numbers -9, -10, -11, -12) and the external kink modes (with toroidal mode numbers 3, 4, 5, and 6).
Date: January 24, 1994
Creator: Robertson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability of coupled tearing and twisting modes in tokamaks

Description: A dispersion relation is derived for resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a tokamak plasma. At low mode amplitude, tearing and twisting modes which have nonideal MHD behavior at only one rational surface at a time in the plasma are decoupled via sheared rotation and diamagnetic flows. At higher amplitude, more unstable {open_quote}compound{close_quote} modes develop which have nonideal behavior simultaneously at many surfaces. Such modes possess tearing parity layers at some of the nonideal surfaces, and twisting parity layers at others, but mixed parity layers are generally disallowed. At low mode number, {open_quote}compound{close_quote} modes are likely to have tearing parity layers at all of the nonideal surfaces in a very low-{beta} plasma, but twisting parity layers become more probable as the plasma {beta} is increased. At high mode number, unstable twisting modes which exceed a critical amplitude drive conventional magnetic island chains on alternate rational surfaces, to form an interlocking structure in which the O-points and X-points of neighboring chains line up.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Fitzpatrick, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Destabilization of the trapped electron mode by magnetic curvature drift resonances

Description: Electron curvature drift resonances, ignored in earlier work on the trapped-electron modes, are found to exert a strong destabilizing influence in the lower collision frequency range of these instabilities. Effects arising from ion temperature gradients, shear, and finite ion gyroradius are included with these vector nebla-drifts in the analysis, and the resultant eigenvalue equation is solved by numerical procedures rather than the commonly used perturbation techniques. For typical tokamak parameters the maximum growth rates are found to be increased over earlier estimates by roughly a factor of 4, and requirements on magnetic shear strength for stabilization are likewise more severe and very difficult to satisfy. For inverted density profiles, this new destabilizing effect is rendered ineffective, with the result that the modes can be stabilized for achievable values of shear provided the temperature gradients are not too severe. Estimates of the particle and thermal energy transport are given for both normal and inverted profiles. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Adam, J.C.; Tang, W.M. & Rutherford, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department