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Control of laser plasma instabilities in hohlraums

Description: Laser plasma instabilities are an important constraint on the operating regime for inertial fusion. Many techniques have been developed to control the various laser-driven instabilities. Experiments with long scale length plasmas are testing these instability levels, the nonlinear regimes, and the control mechanisms.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Kruer, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Z-Pinch Driven Isentropic Compression for Inertial Fusion

Description: The achievement of high gain with inertial fusion requires the compression of hydrogen isotopes to high density and temperatures. High densities can be achieved most efficiently by isentropic compression. This requires relatively slow pressure pulses on the order of 10-20 nanoseconds; however, the pressure profile must have the appropriate time. We present 1-D numerical simulations that indicate such a pressure profile can be generated by using pulsed power driven z pinches. Although high compression is calculated, the initial temperature is too low for ignition. Ignition could be achieved by heating a small portion of this compressed fuel with a short (-10 ps) high power laser pulse as previously described. Our 1-D calculations indicate that the existing Z-accelerator could provide the driving current (-20 MA) necessary to compress fuel to roughly 1500 times solid density. At this density the required laser energy is approximately 10 kJ. Multidimensional effects such as the Rayleigh-Taylor were not addressed in this brief numerical study. These effects will undoubtedly lower fuel compression for a given chive current. Therefore it is necessary to perform z-pinch driven compression experiments. Finally, we present preliminary experimental data from the Z-accelerator indicating that current can be efficiently delivered to appropriately small loads (- 5 mm radius) and that VISAR can be used measure high pressure during isentropic compression.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Holland, K.G.; Slutz, S.A.; Spielman, R.B. & Stygar, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental measurements of hydrodynamic instabilities on NOVA of relevance to astrophysics

Description: Large lasers such as Nova allow the possibility of achieving regimes of high energy densities in plasmas of millimeter spatial scales and nanosecond time scales. In those plasmas where thermal conductivity and viscosity do not play a significant role, the hydrodynamic evolution is suitable for benchmarking hydrodynamics modeling in astrophysical codes. Several experiments on Nova examine hydrodynamically unstable interfaces. A typical Nova experiment uses a gold millimeter-scale hohlraum to convert the laser energy to a 200 eV blackbody source lasting about a nanosecond. The x-rays ablate a planar target, generating a series of shocks and accelerating the target. The evolving area1 density is diagnosed by time-resolved radiography, using a second x-ray source. Data from several experiments are presented and diagnostic techniques are discussed.
Date: September 11, 1998
Creator: Budil, K S; Cherfils, C; Drake, R P; Farley, D; Glendinning, S G; Kalantar, D H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of self-organized critical transport in tokamak plasmas

Description: A theoretical and computational study of the ion temperature gradient and {eta}{sub i} instabilities in tokamak plasmas has been carried out. In toroidal geometry the modes have a radially extended structure and their eigenfrequencies are constant over many rational surfaces that are coupled through toroidicity. These nonlocal properties of the ITG modes impose strong constraint on the drift mode fluctuations and the amciated transport, showing a self-organized characteristic. As any significant deviation away from marginal stability causes rapid temperature relaxation and intermittent bursts, the modes hover near marginality and exhibit strong kinetic characteristics. As a result, the temperature relaxation is self-semilar and nonlocal, leading to a radially increasing heat diffusivity. The nonlocal transport leads to the Bohm-like diffusion scaling. The heat input regulates the deviation of the temperature gradient away from marginality. The obtained transport scalings and properties are globally consistent with experimental observations of L-mode charges.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; LeBrun, M.J. & Kim, J.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations and model of the nonlinear Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (U)

Description: The nonlinear evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability is investigated using numerical simulations with the FLASH code in two-dimensions (20). The purpose of the simulations is to develop a nonlinear model of the RM instability that is accurate to the regime of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and ejecta formation, namely, at large Atwood number A and initial amplitude kh{sub o} (k {triple_bond} wavenumber) of the perturbation. The FLASH code is first validated by obtaining excellent agreement with RM experiments well into the nonlinear regime. The results are then compared with a variety of nonlinear models that are based on potential flow. We find that the models agree with simulations for moderate values of A and kh{sub o} but not for the values characteristic of ICF and ejecta formation. As a result, a new nonlinear model is developed that captures the simulation results consistent with potential flow and for a broader range of A and kh{sub o}.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Dimonte, Guy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimizing liner implosions for high energy density physics experiments

Description: Cylindrical metal shells imploded by magnetic fields - liners - are used as kinetic energy drivers for high energy density physics experiments in hydrodynamics and dynamic material property measurements. There are at least three ways in which liners have been, or are expected to be, used to produce high energy density, i.e., high pressure, in target materials. A common approach uses the liner as a convergent flyer plate, which impacts a material target cylinder after having been shocklessly accelerated across an intervening gap. The resultant shock and piston hydrodynamic flow in the target are used in exploration of a wide variety of phenomena and material properties. Another common method is to slowly compress a liner containing a material sample in a such fashion that little heating occurs. This technique is most useful for investigated physical properties at low temperature and extreme density. Finally, one can use a hybrid approach to shock heat with an impacting liner followed by slower adiabatic, if not isentropic, compression to explore material properties in extrema. The magnetic fields for driving these liners may be produced by either high explosive pulsed power generators or by capacitor banks. Here we will consider only capacitor banks.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ekdahl, C. & Humphries, S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-dimensional high-resolution simulations of compressible rayleigh-taylor instability and turbuelnt mixing

Description: Preliminary results of three-dimensional simulations of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and turbulent mixing in an ideal gas using the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM) with and without molecular dissipation terms are presented. Simulations with spatial resolutions up to 512 were performed. Two types of convergence studies are presented. The first investigates the Reynolds numbers for which the simulations with molecular dissipation are converged with respect to spatial resolution, and the second investigates whether PPM simulations at different spatial resolutions reproduce fully-resolved PPM simulations with molecular dissipation. Finally, statistical analyses of the data are discussed, including spectra and horizontally-averaged terms in the kinetic energy and enstrophy density evolution equations. The application of this statistical data to the development and testing of subgrid-scale models appropriate for compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulent mixing is discussed.
Date: June 12, 1997
Creator: Schilling, O.; Cohen, R.H.; Dannevik, W.P.; Dimits, A.M.; Eliason, D.E.; Mirin, A.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and MHD-induced alpha loss in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

Description: Alpha-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed as predicted by theory in the post neutral beam phase in high central q (safety factor) deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The mode location, poloidal structure and the importance of q profile for TAE instability are discussed. So far no alpha particle loss due to these modes was detected due to the small mode amplitude. However, alpha loss induced by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) was observed in high confinement D-T discharges. Particle orbit simulation demonstrates that the wave-particle resonant interaction can explain the observed correlation between the increase in alpha loss and appearance of multiple high-n (n {ge} 6, n is the toroidal mode number) modes.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Chang, Z.; Nazikian, R. & Fu, G.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent progress in linear and nonlinear studies of toroidal Alfven eigenmode

Description: TAE modes are studied in linear and nonlinear regimes using several kinetic/MHD hybrid models. It is shown that the stability of TAE mode is largely determined by its radial mode structure. The calculated stability thresholds are correlated well with observations, including the recently observed alpha-driven TAE modes in the TFTR DT experiments. In the nonlinear regime, quasilinear simulations with multiple modes show that the saturation level is enhanced by nonlinear wave-particle resonance overlapping when the linear growth rate exceeds a critical value. A fully self-consistent {delta}f noise reduction method for the 3D particle/MHD hybrid model is developed.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Fu, G.Y.; Chen, Y. & Budny, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of MHD feedback stabilization in tokamaks with lower hybrid waves

Description: Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) has been successfully employed in current profile control experiments and can be utilized to prevent MHD instabilities by tailoring the profile. Similarly, theory has shown that LHCD can be very effective in stabilizing MHD instabilities by feedback techniques: this experiment has not been tried yet. This paper addresses some of the practical aspects of such an experiment.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Bernabei, S.; McGuire, K.; Cardinali, A. & Giruzzi, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial resolution of gated x-ray pinhole cameras

Description: The new camera FXI was investigated. Spatial resolution, or its Fourier transform, the modulation transfer function (MTF), is critical for quantitative interpretation of recent hydrodynamic instability data taken on the Nova laser. We have taken data corresponding to backlit straight edges, pinholes, and grids, both on the bench and {ital in}{ital situ} on Nova. For both the pinhole and edge data, the MTF at all wavelengths of interest can be deduced from a single image. Grids are of more limited usefulness, giving the MTF value only at the spatial period of the grid. These different techniques for characterizing the MTF of gated x-ray pinhole cameras are discussed, with results specific to the FXI presented.
Date: May 15, 1996
Creator: Robey, H.F.; Budil, K.S. & Remington, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A brief review of dusty plasma effects in the solar system

Description: Dusty plasmas are commonly found in the solar system and in the rest of space. In this paper we briefly describe some of the more common dusty plasmas: the rings of Saturn, dust tails of comets, dust streams from Jupiter, and noctilucent clouds in the upper atmosphere. We also discuss some of the theoretical issues related to grain charging, dust particle dynamics, waves in dusty plasmas, and dusty plasma crystals.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Winske, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feedback stabilization initiative

Description: Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiplicity of low-shear toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

Description: An enlarged spectrum of ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes is demonstrated to exist within a toroidicity-induced Alfven gap when the inverse aspect ratio is comparable to or larger than the value of the magnetic shear. This limit is appropriate for the low-shear region in most tokamaks, especially those with low aspect ratio. The new modes may be destabilized by fusion-product alpha particles more easily than the standard toroidal Alfven eigenmodes.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Candy, J.; Breizman, B.N.; Van Dam, J.W. & Ozeki, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental study of the richtmyer-meshkov instability, including amplitude and wavelength variations

Description: We report on results of an experimental study of the Richtmyer- Meshkov instability. The growth of the mixing region in the nonlinear regime is measured for a set of cases in which the amplitude and wavelength of the initial perturbation are varied systematically. The experiments are conducted on the Nova laser facility, and use a Nova hohlraum as a driver source to launch a high-Mach-number shock into a miniature shock tube attached to the hohlraum. The shock tube contains brominated plastic and low-density carbon foam as the two working fluids, with a micro-machined, triangular sawtooth interface between them serving as the initial perturbation. The sawtooth perturbation waveform is dominated by a single mode, and the perturbation amplitudes are chosen to expedite transition into the nonlinear phase of the instability. The shock, upon crossing the perturbation at the interface, instigates the Richtmyer- Meshkov instability. The resulting growth of the mixing region is diagnosed radiographically. Quantitative measurements of the temporal growth of the width of the mixing region are made for six different combinations of amplitude and wavelength, building upon previous results which employed a single amplitude/wavelength combination. Data from both experiment and supporting simulations suggest that the nonlinear growth of the mix width admits a logarithmic time dependence. The results also suggest that, properly normalized, the total mixing width grows in a nearly self-similar fashion, with a weak shape dependence.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, P.L.; Logory, L.M.; Peyser, T.A.; Farley, D.R.; Murray, s.D.; Burke, E.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold

Description: A new nonlinear equation has been derived and solved for the evolution of an unstable collective mode in a kinetic system close to the threshold of linear instability. The resonant particle response produces the dominant nonlinearity, which can be calculated iteratively in the near-threshold regime as long as the mode doe snot trap resonant particles. With sources and classical relaxation processes included, the theory describes both soft nonlinear regimes, where the mode saturation level is proportional to an increment above threshold, and explosive nonlinear regimes, where the mode grows to a level that is independent of the closeness to threshold. The explosive solutions exhibit mode frequency shifting. For modes that exist in the absence of energetic particles, the frequency shift is both upward and downward. For modes that require energetic particles for their existence, there is a preferred direction of the frequency shift. The frequency shift continues even after the mode traps resonant particles.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Berk, H.L.; Pekker, M.S. & Breizman, B.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department