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Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

Description: This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Ballard, William Parker
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

Description: Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F. & Corey, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on advanced photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Final subcontract report, March 1, 1991--June 4, 1991

Description: This report outlines opportunities for significantly advancing the scale and economy of high-volume manufacturing of high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) modules. We propose to pursue a concurrent effort to advance existing crystalline silicon module manufacturing technology and to implement thin film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) module manufacturing. This combination of commercial-scale manufacturing of high-efficiency crystalline silicon modules and of pilot-scale manufacturing of low-cost thin film CIS technology will support continued, rapid growth of the US PV industry.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Jester, T. & Eberspacher, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the twenty-first DOE solar photochemistry research conference

Description: The Solar Photochemistry Research Conference brings together grantees and contractors of the Division of Chemical Sciences who are engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. The annual conference provides a focus for the program by allowing for the exchange of new information and ideas, identification of needs and opportunities, and fostering of collaborations among investigators of disparate chemistry backgrounds. The synergy that has been achieved is a major strength of the program. The research provides the foundations for future solar technologies, in which light-induced charge separation processes will be applied to conversion of light energy to chemical energy, e.g., production of alcohols from carbon dioxide, hydrogen from water, ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen, or other needed chemicals at lower cost of by using sunlight as the energy source. The program includes topical sessions on semiconductor nanoparticles, nanocrystalline films, and photoinduced charge separation at the semiconductor/liquid interface; photochemistry and photophysics of transition metal complexes; photoinduced charge separation in zeolites and lamellar assemblies; intramolecular charge separation and electron transfer; dynamics of solvation and solution interfaces; and photoconversion via porphyrins and biomimetic constructs. The special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Moungi Bawendi of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who spoke on semiconductor nanocrystallites (quantum dots). As an added feature, Tom Surek, the Photovoltaics Technology program manager at NREL, presented a status report on one of the most promising and heavily supported programs in solar energy conversion technology, solid state photovoltaics. This volume contains the agenda for the meeting, abstracts of the 31 formal presentations and 55 posters, as well as an address list for the 111 participants.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved techniques for manufacturing the Alpha Solarco concentrating photovoltaic system. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: This report describes the overall procedure involved in the manufacture of photovoltaic cells and modules; identified and describes potential cell and module manufacturing processes that can lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs and significantly increased production, and notes the long-range potential benefits of these improvements; identifies and describes any problems that may impede the achievement of the long-range benefits; and identifies and describes the approaches for solving the identified implementation problems, including time and cost estimates.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Schmidt, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final technical report, Phase 1, Photovoltaic manufacturing technology. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: A development/manufacturing program is described for achieving photovoltaic modules at a cost less than $.50/Watt and solar generating fields at a total installed system cost of less than $1.50/Watt. The basic approach is to construct a fully automated continuous production line based on close spaced sublimation (CSS) deposition of CdTe to produce 60 cm x 120 cm thin-film PV modules. The high deposition rate possible with CSS opens up the possibility of obtaining very high throughput in the range of hundreds of megawatts per year. This leads to dramatic reductions in the capital, labor and overhead cost per unit. The program includes a development phase, an initial production line of about 5-MW/year capacity, a 5 MW solar generating field, and a high-throughput production line with a capacity in the range of hundreds of megawatts per year.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Brown, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Stern, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: This report summarizes the analysis of photovoltaic module manufacturing done by Photon Energy, Inc. Photon Energy's four-stage expansion plan for photovoltaic module manufacturing is explained. Explored and studied were the following: current capabilities in manufacturing and process development, potential for increasing production and reducing manufacturing costs, problems likely to impede increased production and reduced manufacturing costs, and costs and other requirements involved in overcoming problems in manufacturing technology.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Albright, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manufacturing of ultra-high efficiency thin-film concentrator cells. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: This report describes a research project to study developments required to expedite commercializing the GaAs solar cell concentrator technology. We baseline the GaAs concentrator cell and 1000X module design into pilot operation at Kopin Corporation. To attain these improvements, we will use Kopin's existing pilot line to produce cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) GaAs solar cells; these cells already exhibit efficiencies of about 24% at air mass 1.5. We will modify the CLEFT cell to form concentrators that perform well at 500--1000 suns. We will derive the know-how for this modification from an integration of Kopin and VS Corporation technologies. The pilot line will be broadened to include cell receiver and module assembly, using VS Corporation technology obtained from Varian as a baseline. A second-generation design will be formulated to address improvements in the module, and these will be incorporated into the pilot line along with the CLEFT concentrator cell. In parallel, we integrate Kopin's CLEFT GaAs cell technology with the advanced AlGaAs and InGaAs material technology obtained by VS Corporation from Varian to develop a near-term, two-junction mechanical stack with an efficiency of 35%. The receiver thus developed will be compatible with a three-junction approach that has been proposed elsewhere by Kopin. Using a three-junction stack can yield an efficiency of over 40%, and when such cells become available, the pilot line process will have been designed to use them. 11 refs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Gale, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thin edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) octagons. Final subcontract report, 14 February 1991--18 May 1991

Description: Mobil Solar Energy Corp. investigated manufacturing crystalline silicon wafers using the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique. This report identifies the following: (1) current capabilities for manufacturing 200-micron-thick crystalline silicon wafers (10 cm x 10 cm) produced by growing octagons using the EFG technique and laser cutting them into wafers; (2) potential manufacturing improvements from decreasing the thickness of the wafers, improving the quality of the laser cut edge, and increasing cutting speed, all of which lead to reduce manufacturing costs, improved performance, and increased production capacities; (3) problems that impede achieving these potentials; and (4) costs and other requirements involved in overcoming the problems.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Kalejs, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Program. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

Description: The work performed in this contract was focused on two areas: an economic analysis of present manufacturing methods and the conceptualization of advanced equipment. The economic analysis was built on our experience with tabbing and connecting thick cells. This experience was used to generate the cost analysis that clearly points to the improvements in yield and throughput to make PV manufacturing more cost effective. 3 refs.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Hogan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology - Phase 2a. Annual Subcontract Report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

Description: Utility Power Group (UPG), and its lower-tier subcontractor, Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) have conducted efforts in developing their manufacturing lines. UPG has focused on the automation of encapsulation and termination processes developed in Phase I. APS has focused on completion of the encapsulation and module design tasks, while continuing the process and quality control and automation projects. The goal is to produce 55 watt (stabilized) EP50 modules in a new facility. In the APS Trenton EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Developed high throughput lamination procedures; (2) Optimized existing module designs; (3) Developed new module designs for architectural applications; (4) Developed enhanced deposition parameter control; (5) Designed equipment required to manufacture new EUREKA modules developed during Phase II; (6) Improved uniformity of thin-film materials deposition; and (7) Improved the stabilized power output of the APS EP50 EUREKA module to 55 watts. In the APS Fairfield EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Introduced the new products developed under Phase I into the APS Fairfield EUREKA module production line; (2) Increased the extent of automation in the production line; (3) Introduced Statistical Process Control to the module production line; and (4) Transferred-progress made in the APS Trenton facility into the APS Fairfield facility.
Date: January 1995
Creator: Duran, G.; Mackamul, K. & Metcalf, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics: Necessary and sufficient

Description: Photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have always been dominated by crystalline-silicon (c-Si) technology, and recent developments persuasively suggest that c-Si will continue to be the dominant technology well into the next century. The authors explain why c-Si technology is fairing much better than previously expected, and discuss the impact of improvements currently under development. They use a ground-up, engineering-based approach to predict the expected evolution of this type of PV system, and argue that c-Si PV will be in a position to compete for the US residential power market starting in about the year 2010. This market alone will provide the opportunity for PV to supply several percent of the electrical energy used in the United States. Crystalline-silicon technology is therefore not just necessary for building a near-term PV industry; it also offers a low-risk approach to meeting long-term goals for PV energy systems.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Basore, P. A. & Gee, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GaAsSb-based heterojunction tunnel diodes for tandem solar cell interconnects

Description: We report a new approach to tunnel junctions that employs a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer to obtain a band alignment at a InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction favorable for forward bias tunneling. Since the majority of the band offset between GaAsSb and InGaAs or InAlAs is in the valence band, when an GaAsSb layer is placed at an InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction the tunneling distance is reduced and the tunneling current is increased. For all doping levels studied, the presence of the GaAsSb-layer enhanced the forward tunneling characteristics. In fact, in a InGaAs/GaAsSb tunnel diode a peak tunneling current sufficient for a 1000 sun intercell interconnect was achieved with p = 1.5{times}l0{sup 18} cm{sup -3} while a similarly doped all-InGaAs diode was rectifying. This approach affords a new degree of freedom in designing tunnel junctions for tandem solar cell interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. Our approach relaxes the doping requirements by employing a GaAsSb-based heterojunction.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Zolper, J. C.; Klem, J. F.; Plut, T. A. & Tigges, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells

Description: Texturing multicrystalline-silicon cells is a promising technique for reducing reflectance losses. We investigated two methods for texturing multicrystalline-silicon solar cells - anisotropic chemical etch and mechanical dicing saw. Our work emphasized reducing reflectance in the encapsulated module by using optical confinement in the module. We found that optical confinement in the module is very important in the optimization of texture geometries.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Gee, J. M.; Schubert, W. K.; Tardy, H. L.; Hund, T. D. & Robison, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon float-zone crystal growth as a tool for the study of defects and impurities

Description: Because of its ability to produce silicon crystals of exceptionally high purity and crystallographic perfection, the float-zone method lends itself to use as a tool for the controlled study of deliberately introduced defects and impurities in Si crystals and their effects on materials properties such as minority charge-carrier lifetime or photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Some examples of such studies are presented here. Defects the authors have studied include grain size, dislocations, swirl defects, and fast-cooling defects. Impurity studies have focused on H, N, Fe, and interactions between Fe and Ga. They used the bulk DC photoconductive decay lifetime characterization method and small diagnostic solar cell characterization techniques to assess material quality. The low defect and impurity concentrations obtainable by float zoning allow baseline lifetimes over 20 milliseconds and photovoltaic device efficiencies over 22%; therefore, small effects of impurities and defects can be detected easily.
Date: June 20, 2000
Creator: Ciszek, T. F. & Wang, T. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth and development of GaInAsP for use in high-efficiency solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1992

Description: This report describes work done during Phase II of the subcontract. Goals for Phase II include the following: (1) Optimize the GaInAsP cell on GaAs and demonstrate a 500-sun at air mass (AM) 1.5 efficiency of >23%. (2) Develop a window layer, including the evaluation of AlGaAs, GaInP, AlGaAsP, AlGaInP, and GaP. (3) Develop a front-surface contact, with a grid designed for 500-sun concentration, and a goal of a contact resistivity of {approximately}10{sup 5} ohm-cm{sup 2}. (4) Grow GaInAsP cells on Ge, with a goal of a 1-sun (AM 1.5) efficiency of >15%. Accomplishments reported herein include (1) the fabrication of p-on-n and n-on-p GaInAsP cells on GaAs, with the n-on-p cell demonstrating a 10-sun (AM 1.5) active-area efficiency of 23.4% as measured at NREL (2) the evaluation of Al{sub x}Ga({sub 1-x})As, GaInP{sub 2}, and AlInP{sub 2} window layers; and (3) the fabrication of GaInAsP cells on Ge, with the demonstration of a p-on-n GaInAsP cell grown on Ge with a 1-sun (AM 1.5) active-area efficiency of 14.4%.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Sharps, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT AND PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN LAMINATED ORGANICSYSTEMS

Description: As a result of a wide variety of studies on photosynthesis in living plants and plant fragments, together with the development of photosensitive, photovoltaic junctions in inorganic crystals and the discovery and exploration of semiconduction in organic molecular substances, a suggestion has been made that the primary quantum conversion process in photosynthetic tissues involves the creation and separation of charge to opposite sides of an asymmetrically-constructed lamina, followed by the trapping of both the electrons and the holes which then lead to their respective chemical processes, namely reduction of carbon dioxide and oxidation of the water to oxygen. This has led us to study model systems as semiconductors with a view to creating an organic photovoltaic junction.
Date: September 1, 1958
Creator: Kearns, David & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PV Technology for Today and Tomorrow (Presentation)

Description: The presentation was given as a webinar to the Solar Instructor Training Network on August 13, 2010. It summarizes the three primary types of photovoltaic technologies, why the three approaches are useful and some advantages and disadvantages of each approach. At the end is an answer to a question that was asked.
Date: August 13, 2010
Creator: Kurtz, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, fabrication, and certification of advanced modular PV power systems. Annual technical progress report, 8 September 1995--7 September 1996

Description: This report summarizes the activities performed during the first year of a nominal 2-year effort by Solar Electric Specialties Company (SES) under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project of the National Photovoltaic Program. The goal of the SES contract is to reduce the installed system life-cycle costs by developing certified and standardized prototype products for two SES product lines--MAPPS{trademark} and Photogenset{trademark}. The MAPPS (modular autonomous PV power supply) systems are used for DC applications up to about a thousand watt-hours. The Photogensets are hybrid PV/generator systems for AC applications. SES expects these products to provide the basis for future commercial product lines of standardized certified, packaged systems.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Lambarski, T. & Minyard, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

Description: Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic energy program overview: Fiscal year 1994

Description: This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop pre-commercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.
Date: March 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department